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Мигел Найдорф (роден Мендел (Мйецислав) Найдорф в Гродзиск Мазовецки близо до Варшава, Полша, 15 април, 1910 – починал в Малага, Испания, 4 юли, 1997) е полски и аржентински шахматист гросмайстор от еврейски произход, станал известен със своята Сицилианска защита, Вариант Найдорф.
Ранни години[редактиране | edit source]
В началото на своята шахматна кариера, през 1929, Найдорф побеждава Глюцберг в изключителна партия, наречена „Полската безсмъртна“. През 1930, взима участие в 6-то-7-мо Първенство на Варшава, спечелено от Паулино Фридман. През 1931, Найдорф се класира на 2-ро място, след Фридман. През 1932, взима участие в 9-то-10-то Първенство на Варшава. През 1933, печели във Варшава. През януари 1934 се класира 2-ри, следд Рудолф Шпилман, във Варшава. През лятото на 1934, губи мач срещу Оред Карлин (1 -2 = 1). През 1934, печели Първенството на Варшава. През 1935, разделу 2-ро-4-то място с Паулино Фридман и Хенрих Фридман, след Савиели Тартаковер, на 3-тото първенство на Полша. Следва сензационната победа в мач срещу Савиели Тартаковер в Торун (2 -1 = 2). През 1936, поделя 1-вото място с Лайош Щайнер в първенството на Унгария. През 1937, е 3-ти на 4-тият шампионат на Полша в Юрата. През 1937, печели в Рогашка Слатина (Rohitsch-Sauerbrunn). През 1938 г., поделя 10-то-12-то място в Лодз. През 1939 г., е 6-ти в Маргате.
Постижения в Шахматни олимпиади[редактиране | edit source]
Найдорф 3 пъти играе за отборът на Полша на Шахматна олимпиада. През август 1935, мести на 3-та дъска в 6-тата Шахматна олимпиада във Варшава (+9 -2 =6). През август 1936, играе на втора дъска на неофициалната олимпиада в Мюнхен (+14 -2 =4). През 1937, играе на втора дъска на 7-мата Олимпиада в Стокхолм (+5 -3 =7).
Найдорф играе 11 пъти за отборът на Аржентина на Шахматни олимпиади в периода 1950–1976. Играе на първа дъска в Дубровник 1950 (+8 -0 =6) и Хелзинки 1952 (+11 -2 =3). Печели общо 11 медала от олимпиади (седем с отборите на Полша и Аржентина -4 сребърни, 3 бронзови, и 4 индивидуални — три златни 1939, 1950, и 1952, 1 сребърен 1962). Най-доброто отборно класиране с Найдорф в редиците постига Аржентина, която завършва на второ място в Хелзинки 1952.
Аржентина[редактиране | edit source]
Изплашен от репрессите на Втората Световна война, през 1939 Найдорф решава да остане в Буенос Айрес, след като играе втора дъска за Полша в 8-мата Шахматна олимпиада. На последната си Олимпиада, изиграна за родината му, постига брилянтен резултат 1939 (+12 −2 =4).
In September 1939, after the 8th Olympiad, Najdorf tied for 1st with Paul Keres at Buenos Aires (Circulo); the two scored 8.5/11. In 1941, he took 2nd, behind Gideon Ståhlberg at Mar del Plata, with 12.5/17. Also in 1941, he tied for 1st with Stahlberg at Buenos Aires, the two scored 11/14. In 1942, he won at Mar del Plata, with 13.5/17, ahead of Ståhlberg. In 1943, he was second at Mar del Plata, behind Stålhberg, scoring 10/13. In 1943, he won at Rosario. In 1944, he won at La Plata, with 13/16, ahead of Ståhlberg. In 1944, he tied for 1st with Herman Pilnik at Mar del Plata; the two each scored 12/15. In 1945, he won at Buenos Aires (Grau Memorial), with 10/12, ahead of Ståhlberg and Carlos Guimard. He took second place at Viña del Mar 1945, with 10.5/13, behind Guimard. Then he won Mar del Plata 1945 with 11/15 ahead of Ståhlberg, and repeated at Mar del Plata 1946 with 16/18, ahead of Guimard and Ståhlberg. He also won at Rio de Janeiro 1946.
As World War II ended, organized chess once again got going in the international arena, particularly in war-stricken Europe. In 1946, Najdorf tied for 4th-5th with László Szabó at Groningen, with 11.5/19; the event was won by Mikhail Botvinnik. Further in 1946, he won at Prague, with 10.5/13, ahead of Petar Trifunović, Gosta Stoltz, Svetozar Gligorić, and Jan Foltys. He also won at Barcelona 1946, with 11.5/13, ahead of Daniel Yanofsky. In 1947, he took 2nd place at Buenos Aires/La Plata (Sextangular), with 6.5/10, behind Ståhlberg, but ahead of Max Euwe. In 1947, he won at Mar del Plata. In 1947, he took 2nd, behind Erich Eliskases, at São Paulo.
In 1948, Najdorf placed second at New York with 6/9, behind only Reuben Fine, who scored 8/9. He tied for 4th-5th with Hector Rossetto at Mar del Plata, with 10/17, behind Eliskases, Ståhlberg, and Medina Garcia. Najdorf won at Mar del Plata 1948 with 14/17, ahead of Ståhlberg (13.5), Eliskases (12), and Euwe (10.5). He was second at Buenos Aires 1948, with 8/10, behind Ståhlberg. Najdorf won at Venice 1948, with 11.5/13, ahead of Gideon Barcza, Esteban Canal, and Euwe. In 1949, he tied for 1st with Ståhlberg at Buenos Aires. In 1950, he won at Amsterdam, with 15/19, ahead of Samuel Reshevsky (14), Ståhlberg (13.5), Gligorić (12), Vasja Pirc (12), and Euwe (11.5). He also won at Bled in 1950.
World Championship contender[редактиране | edit source]
Najdorf's string of superb successes from 1939 to 1947 had raised him into the ranks of the world's top players. According to Chessmetrics, he was ranked second in the world from mid 1947 to mid 1949. Despite his strong results, Najdorf was not invited to the 1948 World Championship tournament.
Although not a full-time chess professional (for many years he worked in the insurance business), he was one of the world's leading chess players in the 1950s and 1960s and he excelled in playing blindfold chess. In 1950 FIDE made him of the inaugural International Grandmasters. In the same year he played at Budapest in the Candidates Tournament to select a challenger for the world chess championship, and finished fifth. Three years later, in the Zürich Candidates Tournament in 1953, he finished sixth. He did not qualify for the Candidates again. The closest was in the following cycle, when he narrowly failed to qualify from the 1955 Interzonal.
Later career[редактиране | edit source]
Najdorf won important tournaments such as Mar del Plata (1961) and Havana (1962 and 1964). He played in both Piatigorsky Cup tournaments. Just before his 60th birthday, he participated in the 1970 USSR vs. Rest of the World match, achieving an even score against the former World Champion Mikhail Tal.
Najdorf's lively personality made him a great favorite among chess fans, helped no doubt by his aptitude for witty sayings, taking after his mentor Tartakower. An example: commenting on his opponent at the 1970 USSR-vs-World match, he remarked, „When [then-world-champion Boris] Spassky offers you a piece, you might as well resign then and there. But when Tal offers you a piece, you would do well to keep playing, because then he might offer you another, and then another, and then … who knows?“
Najdorf remained active in chess right to the end of his life. At age 69, he tied for second place in a very strong field at Buenos Aires 1979, with 8/13, behind winner Bent Larsen (11/13), but ahead of former World Champions Tigran Petrosian and Boris Spassky. At Buenos Aires 1988, he made a very good 8.5/15 for fourth place at age 78. The next year in the 1989 Argentine Championship, with several other GMs in the field, he tied for 4th-6th places, with 10/17. His last national championship was in 1991 at age 81, where he finished with a minus score. Najdorf was an exceptional blitz (five-minute chess) player, keeping his strength into his 80s at the quick pace.
Contributions[редактиране | edit source]
The Najdorf Variation in the Sicilian Defense, one of the most popular openings in modern chess, is named after him. Najdorf also made contributions to the theory and praxis of other openings such as the King's Indian Defense. Najdorf was also a well-respected chess journalist, who had a popular column in the Buenos Aires Clarin newspaper.
Notable chess games[редактиране | edit source]
- Glucksberg vs Miguel Najdorf, Warsaw 1929, Dutch Defence (A85), 0-1 „The Polish Immortal“ or „Najdorf's Immortal“ — one of the most brilliant games of the 20th century.
- Miguel Najdorf vs Gideon Stahlberg, Lodz 1938, Queen's Gambit Declined, Semi-Tarrasch Defence (D40), 1-0 These two players were destined to settle in Argentina in 1939, and there they had great rivalries in many events.
- Miguel Najdorf vs Paul Keres, Buenos Aires Circulo 1939, Queen's Gambit Declined, Slav Defence (D11), 1-0 Keres opens the centre prematurely, and Najdorf forms a pawn roller and arranges a quick victory.
- Carlos Guimard vs Miguel Najdorf, Buenos Aires Circulo 1941, Queen's Gambit Declined, Slav Defence (D11), 0-1 Najdorf shows how to play this line from the Black side, as comparison with the Keres game on the line above.
- Miguel Najdorf vs Mikhail Botvinnik, Groningen 1946, Nimzo-Indian Defence, Classical Variation (E35), 1-0 In their first meeting, Najdorf catches the future World Champion in a maze of tactics.
- Miguel Najdorf vs Isaac Boleslavsky, Groningen 1946, Old Indian Defence (A54), 1-0 Najdorf avoids a tactical battle with an early exchange of Queens in Boleslavsky's pet variation, then grinds him down in the strategic middlegame.
- Miguel Najdorf vs Erich Eliskases, Mar del Plata 1947, Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defence (D63), 1-0 Eliskases was another European GM who stayed in South America during World War II, and he had a great rivalry there with Najdorf.
- Miguel Najdorf vs Reuben Fine, New York 1951, Queen's Gambit Accepted (D28), 1-0 Fine was getting ready to retire from chess, with this being his last serious event at age 37.]
- Mark Taimanov vs Miguel Najdorf, Zurich 1953, King's Indian, Orthodox, Aronin-Taimanov, 9.Ne1 (E98), 0-1 A brilliancy-prize game from the 1953 Candidates event versus the Soviet grandmaster Mark Taimanov. Najdorf's enthusiasm for, and virtuosity in conducting, the attack against the enemy King is well shown here, in a game praised by David Bronstein in his famous book on the tournament. It is also a good example of learning from one's defeats. Earlier that year, Svetozar Gligorić had beaten Najdorf with the same system he borrowed to such effect with Taimanov. (Miguel Najdorf vs Svetozar Gligoric, Mar del Plata 1953). After the game, Don Miguel delivered his famous line: „Taimanov had better go and play his piano“!
- Miguel Najdorf once played a game of chess with communist revolutionary Che Guevara; they drew.
Източници[редактиране | edit source]
- Chessmetrics Summary for 1945 — 1955, Chessmetrics
- 1955 Goteborg Interzonal Tournament, Mark Weeks' Chess Pages