Разлика между версии на „Комарно“

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От късния 8 век до ранния 10 век днешните околности на Комарно принадлежат на [[Нитранско княжество|Нитранското княжество]] и [[Великоморавия]]. В ранни 10 век тези земи попадат под контрола на маджарските племена.
[[ImageФайл:Komarno1594.jpg|rightдясно|thumbмини|300п|Обсадата на Комарновската крепост от османските турци през 1594 г.]]
Крал [[Бела IV]] в своя грамота от 1 април 1265 г., дава на селището градски статут и привилегии. Тези привилегии допринасят за развитието на средновековно Комарно, подпомагайки разцвета на търговията и занаятчийството. <!--Средновековно Комарно Medievalизживява Komárnoголям prospered,разцвет especiallyпо underвреме theна reignуправлението ofна [[MathiasМатияш CorvinusКорвин]]. HeТой builtиздига aренесансов renaissanceдворец palaceв withinкрепостния theкомплекс, castleкойто complexпосещава andза frequentedотмора itи forразвлечения. restМатияш andКорвин pleasure.създава Mathiasкралска Corvinusфлотилия alsoв establishedДунав, theкоято royalизползва DanubeКомарно flotilla,като whichосновна usedбаза Komárnoпо asвреме itsна mainвойните base during theс [[OttomanОсманска wars in Europeимперия|OttomanОсманската warsимперия]]. InПрез the16 16thвек centuryстава Komárnoедин becameот oneотбранителните ofцентрове centers of defense for theна [[HabsburgХабсбургска империя|Хабсбургската Empireимперия]] againstсрещу theекспанзията expansionна ofОсманската the [[Ottoman Empire]]империя. DuringВсе theпак middleградът ofи theкрепостта 16thпопадат century,под underконтрола theна reignосманците ofза [[Ferdinandкратко I, Holy Roman Emperor|Ferdinand I]], the medieval castle was rebuilt into a well-defensible fortification. However, it was occupied by Ottomans betweenмежду 1594-1599. The rebuilt fortification became known as the Old Fortress when in the 17th century it was enlarged and expanded to form the New Fortressг. BothПрез the18 Oldвек, andкогато Newосманците Fortressesна-сетне successfullyса resistedотблъснати theот attacksрегиона ofзапочва theотново Turkish army during the course of the Turkish wars.период Inна theразцвет 18thза centuryКомарно, afterедин theот endнай-големите ofградове theв Turkishтова warsвреме andв expulsionимперията. ofВ theсвоя Turksграмота fromот the16 region,март Komárno, one of the biggest towns in the country, again began to1745 flourishг. [[MariaМария TheresaТереза of(Свещена AustriaРимска империя)|MariaМария TheresaТереза Австрийска]]'s charterдава ofна theКомарно Marchстатутът 16,и 1745привилегиите grantedна Komárno the status and privilege of a free royal town. Komárno was soon influenced by the Baroque styles that represented and characterized the Habsburg Empire and its territories. The local nobles and burgers built palaces and the newly arrived [[Trinitarians]], [[Franciscans]] and [[Jesuits]]свободен builtкралски churchesград.
During the 18th century Komárno experienced many natural disasters including floods, fires, earthquakes, and cholera and plague epidemics. Most notable of these natural disasters were the two [[earthquake]]s that completely destroyed the town in 1763 and 1783. Despite these calamities, Komárno continued to be an important center for trade and crafts until the middle of the 19th century. Beginning in the early 19th century, the fortifications surrounding Komárno underwent extensive reconstruction. The reconstruction was interrupted by the [[Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas|Revolution of 1848]]. Komárno played a significant role in the revolution, remaining the last bastion of the Hungarian resistance against the Austrians until 1849, when the fortress and town were finally surrendered. The town was completely destroyed by the Austrian bombardment and left destitute. During the years of Austrian absolutism, Komárno quickly became a strategic military base of [[Austro-Hungary]]. Various military buildings were constructed and in 1876 reconstruction of the fortification system was completed. The town itself only slowly recovered from the destruction during the revolutionary war. It lost its former economic importance and influence as a major town of the region.
== 20th century ==
[[Image:Komarno city centre.JPG|right|thumb|Komárno town centre]]
Komárno's recovery began at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, when construction of iron bridges across the Danube and Váh began as well as the first railway lines linking Komárno to the rest of Austro-Hungary. Komárno soon became an important transport junction, attracting industry and trade. In 1896 the town of Újszőny on the south side of the Danube was combined with Komárno, allowing the town to expand its territory and development across the Danube.
With the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after [[World War I]], Komárno again found itself under new rule. The forming of [[Czechoslovakia]], whose natural border in the south became the Danube River, separated Komárno from its southern half. In 1919 (confirmed by the [[Treaty of Trianon]] in 1920), the territory to the north of the Danube was ceded to Czechoslovakia with the territory to the south of the Danube remaining in Hungary. Following the territory reorganization the town officially became known as Komárno (its [[Slovak language|Slovak]] name, which had been in use for centuries{{Fact|date=April 2008}} besides the Magyar, Latin and German names{{Fact|date=April 2008}}) and in 1923 it was reduced from a county seat to a district seat. In the 1920s the newly founded tobacco business and the construction of the Danube harbor and shipyard created employment opportunities for the local inhabitants as well as bringing an influx of newcomers. Although this resulted in a dramatic change in the national composition of Komárno, the majority remained Hungarian.
In fact Komárno became the center of cultural and social life of the "new" Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia. In 1938, under the [[First Vienna Award]] of that year, Komárno (now again as Komárom) was annexed to Hungary. Its former name and status of town and county seat of the [[Komárom county]] was restored. At the onset of [[World War II]] Komárom/Komárno became a military center for the [[Germany|Germans]] and eventually the frontline for the Germans defending the oil refineries to the south. Although there was no heavy fighting in the Komárno area, it was bombarded several times. The bridges connecting the two territories were destroyed and most of the territory lying on the south bank of the Danube lay in ruins. On March 30th 1945 the territory on the north bank of the Danube became part of Czechoslovakia again. After the war, large-scale reconstruction of Komárno's industries began. The reconstruction of the shipyard, the town's largest industrial facility, was completed in 1950 and greatly promoted the economic development of the town. New factories were constructed in the west side of town near the shipyard creating a new industrial district. An urban development plan was implemented as well. Residential districts were created with new housing estates and wide roads were laid across the town.
== Sights ==
[[Image:Komárno - Castle.jpg|right|thumb|Komárno Fortress]]
The majority of the historical and cultural sites, including the town center of the former Komárno, were well preserved and remain to this day. The county and town halls, the courthouse, St. Andrews Church, the Danube Museum, and other buildings are examples of some of the many historical structures still standing today. Klapka Square (named after [[György Klapka]], the Hungarian general who defended Komárno against the Austrians in the War of Independence) and the well preserved remains of the fortification structure are Komárno's main historical monuments symbolizing both the pride and resilience of this historical important town. The Europe Square, built in 2001 (pictured here) is a Disney-like area in the center, purporting to represent buildings from all parts of Europe. The buildings function as shops and restaurants.
== Demographics and culture ==
In 2001, the town had a population of 37,366. 60% of the inhabitants are [[Magyars|Hungarians]], the second-highest proportion in the country after [[Dunajská Streda]]. [[Slovaks]] made up 34.7%. In 2004 the first Hungarian-language university in Slovakia since 1919, the [[J. Selye University]] was established in Komárno.
== Личности ==
* [[Мор Йокай]] (1825-1904), един от най-значимите унгарски писатели