Модул:Wd

от Уикипедия, свободната енциклопедия
Направо към: навигация, търсене

This модул is intended to fetch data from Wikidata with or without a link to the connected Wikipedia article and with many other features.

Usage

{{#invoke:wd0|command1|flag1a|flag1b|flag1c0|command2|flag2a|flag2b|flag2c0|flag0a|flag0b|flag0c0|arg1|arg2|arg3}}

Commands

The commands (command1, command2, ...) determine what kind of values are returned. One call can only contain commands from a single class, except that the main class is always used together with one other class.

Value class

The value class commands can be combined, meaning that multiple commands of different types from this class can be given at one time.

Combine multiple commands into one call to this модул instead of making multiple calls to this модул with one command each to be sure that all the returned pieces of information belong to each other.

Type Command Returns Basic usage Description
I property first match[lower-alpha 1] {{#invoke:wd|property|P1}} Returns the requested property – or list of properties – from the current item-entity or from a given entity.
properties all matches {{#invoke:wd|properties|P1}}
II qualifier first match[lower-alpha 1] {{#invoke:wd|qualifier|P1|P2}} Returns the requested qualifier – or list of qualifiers – from the given property of the current item-entity or of a given entity.

Unlike the other value-class commands, this command can be given multiple times to retrieve different qualifiers in one call.

qualifiers all matches {{#invoke:wd|qualifiers|P1|P2}}
III reference first match[lower-alpha 1] {{#invoke:wd|reference|P1}} Returns a reference – or list of references – from the given property of the current item-entity or of a given entity.[lower-alpha 2]
references all matches {{#invoke:wd|references|P1}}
  1. а б в Returns only a single value instead of multiple (if multiple claims or statements match). The returned value is the first match found from the best-ranked claims.
  2. Only references that are valid according to the Wikidata guideline on sources are returned (i.e. those that have at least a property указано в (P248) or URL на източник (P854)).

Name class

The name class commands cannot be combined.

Type Command Returns Basic usage Description
I label {{#invoke:wd|label}} Returns the label of the current item-entity or of a given entity if present.
II title {{#invoke:wd|title}} Returns the title of the page linked to the current item-entity or to a given item-entity if such page exists.
III alias first match[lower-alpha 1] {{#invoke:wd|alias}} Returns an alias – or list of aliases – of the current item-entity or of a given entity if present.
aliases all matches {{#invoke:wd|aliases}}
  1. Returns only a single alias instead of multiple (if multiple aliases are present).

Main class

Command Basic usage Description
main {{#invoke:wd|main|command|P1}} Intended for use by wrapper templates (around this module) to invoke one or more of the above commands, returning their respective output.

The parameters passed to the wrapper template are the ones that will be used by the module, e.g. {{wikidata|property|P1549}}{{#invoke:Wd|main}}{{#invoke:Wd|main|property|P1549}}.

Therefore, any parameters set by the wrapper template itself will be discarded, e.g. {{wikidata|property|P1549}}{{#invoke:Wd|main|qualifier|P1082|P585}}{{#invoke:Wd|main|property|P1549}}.

Flags

The following (optional) flags are available which can be used to alter this модул's behaviour. They must be given after the (first) command and before the other arguments. For convenience, empty flags (i.e. ||) are allowed and will simply be ignored.

Command flags

These flags (flag1*, flag2*, ...) apply to the command that precedes them directly.

Flag Description
linked Creates a link to the Wikipedia article that is connected to the property or qualifier if it exists. Also links units of measurement that may be appended to values.

If this parameter is omitted, then the plain property or qualifier value will be returned.

short [EXPENSIVE] Returns the кратко име (P1813) of any entity returned if they have one attached. If that is not the case, then the default behaviour of returning the entity's label will occur.
raw Returns the raw value if applicable.

If this flag is used with item or property datatypes, then this will return the Q-identifier or P-identifier.

For quantity datatypes, this flag will strip off any units of measurement, unless the unit flag is also given in which case the raw unit of measurement (its Q-identifier) will be returned.

If this flag is used with time datatypes, then the returned date will be in the format of year-month-day (e.g. 1731-2-11). Dates in the Julian calendar stored with a precision of days through millenniums will have /Julian attached to the output (e.g. 1731-2-11/Julian, which may be split off using the {{ #titleparts}} template function).

If it is used with globe coordinate datatypes, then it replaces the various symbols with forward slashes in the returned value (e.g. 52/5/3/N/4/19/3/E, which may be split into parts using the {{ #titleparts}} template function).

multilanguage Returns monolingual text values in any available language, not just the current wiki's language.
unit Returns only the unit of measurement for quantity datatypes.

Configuration flags

These flags (flag0*) are general configuration flags and can be given anywhere after the first command (but before the other arguments).

Flag Command class Description
Combination of: preferred value Sets a rank constraint for the selected claim(s).

The first three set the ranks for which claim(s) will be selected. They can optionally be followed by a + or a -, e.g. normal+ or preferred-, where the first selects claims with a 'normal' rank or higher and the second selects claims with a 'preferred' rank or lower. To get claims of all ranks, use preferred- or deprecated+.

If the best flag is given additionally, then only the claims that have the highest rank amongst the selected claims will be returned.

The default is normal+|best (so by default claims with a 'deprecated' rank are never returned).

Output is always sorted from highest rank to lowest (regardless of any of these flags being set).

normal
deprecated
best
Combination of: future value Sets a time constraint for the selected claim(s). Uses the claims' qualifiers of начало (P580) and край (P582) to determine if the claim is valid for the selected time period(s).

The default is future|current|former (so by default claims that are valid for any time period are returned).

current
former
mdy value Returns date values in month-day-year order instead of day-month-year order.
single value Returns only a single claim instead of multiple (if multiple claims match). Has no effect if the property/properties command is given, in which case this flag would be redundant.
sourced value Only returns claims that have at least one valid reference.
One of: edit value, name Adds a clickable icon after the output that may be used by readers to edit the returned claim on Wikidata.

If edit@end is used, then the icon will be placed at the end of the line for neat alignment in infoboxes.

edit@end

Arguments

The arguments determine the sources from which all the returned values are fetched.

Positional arguments

The following table shows the available positional arguments (arg*) in their fixed order. For each command, the applicable set of arguments is marked. If multiple commands are given, then the applicable set is the union of the individual sets. For instance, if the commands properties and qualifiers have been given, then at least both the arguments property_id and qualifier_id should be given as well.

More than one qualifier/qualifiers command can be given. The order in which these commands with their flags are given matches the order in which the respective qualifier_id arguments are given.

(required) (optional) (optional) (required) (optional) (required) (required)
{{#invoke:wd commands flags entity_id property_id raw_value qualifier_id qualifier_id }}
label, title
property/properties
reference/references
qualifier/qualifiers
qualifier/qualifiers (optional 2nd, 3rd, etc.)

Below follows a description of all positional arguments.

Argument Description
entity_id

(optional)

[EXPENSIVE] Q-identifier of the item-entity to be accessed (e.g. Q55), or P-identifier (or an available alias) of the property-entity to be accessed preceded by the Property: prefix (e.g. Property:P38).

In case of the name class commands, the Property: prefix may be omitted for P-identifiers (e.g. P38).

If this parameter is omitted, then the item-entity connected to the current page will be used (except when eid= is given, see below). If this parameter is given, but empty (i.e. ||), then due to its position it will be interpreted as an empty flag and thus be ignored, giving the same result as if it were omitted. See also the eid= named argument below that can be used to give an entity-ID too, but without the item-entity connected to the current page being used as a result in this specific case.

property_id P-identifier (or an available alias) of the property within the entity to be accessed, without the Property: prefix (e.g. P35).
raw_value

(optional)

Either the Q-identifier equal to the property value (e.g. Q29574) or a literal value (i.e. string or quantity etc., no entity label) equal to the raw property value of the particular claim to be accessed.

Dates as literal values must be formatted year-month-day (e.g. 1731-2-11) for dates with a precision of days, year-month (e.g. 1731-2) for dates with a precision of months, and year (e.g. 1731) for dates of lesser precision without any spaces or leading zeros. Dates BCE require a minus sign in front of the year (e.g. -2950-1-31). Dates stored in the Julian calendar must have /Julian attached to the end (e.g. 1731-2-11/Julian). Decades like the 2010s must be given as 2010 (but the 2010s BCE as -2019), centuries like the 20th century as 1901 (but the 20th century BCE as -2000), and millenniums like the 3rd millennium as 2001 (but the 3rd millennium BCE as -3000).

Globe coordinates as literal values must be formatted with forward slashes (i.e. /) between the parts and no symbols (e.g. 52/5/3/N/4/19/3/E) without any spaces or leading zeros.

The special type 'no value' can be given by entering the empty string (i.e. ||) and the special type 'unknown value' can be given by entering a single underscore (i.e. |_|). To get a literal underscore, escape it by placing a backslash \ directly in front of it (i.e. \_); the same holds for a literal backslash (i.e. \).

To get a literal vertical bar |, use {{!}} or |.

If this parameter is omitted, then all claims (matching any other constraints) within the property will be accessed.

qualifier_id P-identifier (or an available alias) of the qualifier within the entity to be accessed, without the Property: prefix (e.g. P580).

Named arguments

Below follows a description of all named arguments, which are name-value pairs (i.e. |name=value). These are all optional and can be given anywhere after the first command.

Argument Description
eid= [EXPENSIVE] This argument offers the same functionality as the positional argument entity_id (e.g. |eid=Q55), with one difference: if the argument is given but its value is left empty (i.e. |eid=), then no entity is accessed at all instead of the item-entity connected to the current page. This is useful in some cases where a variable entity-ID is expected, but where the item-entity connected to the current page should not be accessed as the default.

Also, the Property: prefix may be omitted for P-identifiers (e.g. |eid=P38) for all commands.

This argument only has effect if the positional argument entity_id is omitted.

<qualifier>= The <qualifier> is a placeholder for a set of arguments that determine which claims should be accessed based on qualifier value, analogous to the pair of positional arguments property_id and raw_value that determine access based on property value.

As such, <qualifier> is any qualifier's P-identifier (or an available alias) without the Property: prefix (e.g. P518). Its value is either the Q-identifier equal to one of the qualifier values (e.g. Q27561) or a literal value (i.e. string or quantity etc., no entity label) equal to one of the raw qualifier values of the particular claim to be accessed. The value format is the same as for the positional argument raw_value. The special type 'no value' given by the empty string also matches the total absence within the claim of the particular qualifier.

Example: |P518=Q27561

Multiple arguments of this type can be given to match multiple qualifier values simultaneously for each claim.

Property aliases

Property aliases are other names for P-identifiers that can be used instead. The following property aliases (which are case-sensitive) are currently available:

Alias translates
to
P-identifier
coord P625
author P50
publisher P123
importedFrom P143
statedIn P248
pages P304
languageOfWorkOrName P407
publicationDate P577
startTime P580
endTime P582
chapter P792
retrieved P813
referenceURL P854
sectionVerseOrParagraph P958
archiveURL P1065
title P1476
formatterURL P1630
quote P1683
shortName P1813
language P2439
archiveDate P2960
column P3903

Advanced usage

The layout of the output from (a combination of) commands that have both a singular and a plural form (e.g. property/properties) can be customized by using a number of named flags, which are name-value pairs (i.e. |flag=value), that can be given anywhere after the first command. The table below shows the available named flags.

To insert a space at the beginning or end of a value, use an underscore _. To get a literal underscore, escape it by placing a backslash \ directly in front of it (i.e. \_); the same holds for a literal backslash (i.e. \). To get a literal vertical bar |, use {{!}} or &#124;.

Named flag Default value Default condition Description
format= %p[%s][%r] if the property/properties command was given and the qualifier/qualifiers command was not given The format of a single claim. The available parameters are as follows.
Parameter Description
%p The claim's property value applied by the property/properties command.
%q1, %q2, %q3, ... The claim's qualifier value or list of qualifier values applied by the corresponding qualifier/qualifiers command.
%q The collection of the qualifier values applied by each qualifier/qualifiers command (i.e. %q1 + %q2 + %q3 + ...). If only one qualifier/qualifiers command was given, then this parameter is equivalent to %q1.
%r The claim's reference value or list of reference values applied by the reference/references command.
%a The entity's alias applied by the alias/aliases command.
%s The movable separator placeholder. This is a special parameter that is not applied by a command, but instead is filled automatically between each pair of claims (if a list of claims is returned). This is handy in case a reference is returned as well, since it allows the reference to be placed after the punctuation mark as prescribed by Wikipedia's manual of style. The default value is a comma (,) and can be overridden with the sep%s flag (see below).

Optional parameters can be given by encapsulating them between square brackets: [...]. All content between the square brackets is only displayed if a value for each optional parameter that has been defined between the same brackets has been found. Optional content can also be nested.

To use two opening square brackets that directly follow each other (i.e. Шаблон:!((), use {{!((}}.

At least one parameter must be given that is not optional, while the %s parameter must always be defined as optional.

To get a literal [, ], % or \, escape the character by placing a backslash \ directly in front of it (e.g. \%). See also the description directly above this table for more.

%q[%s][%r] if the property/properties command was not given and the qualifier/qualifiers command was given
%r if only the reference/references command was given
%p[ <span style="font-size:smaller">(%q)</span>][%s][%r] if the property/properties command was given and the qualifier/qualifiers command was given
%a[%s] if the alias/aliases command was given
sep= _ default The fixed separator between each pair of claims.
0 if only the reference/references command was given without the raw flag
sep%s= , default The movable separator between each pair of claims. This will be the value of the %s parameter applied to all claims except for the last in the list.
; if the property/properties command was not given and the qualifier/qualifiers command was given
sep%q1=, sep%q2=, sep%q3=, ... ,_ default The separator between each pair of qualifiers of a single claim. These are the value separators for the %q1, %q2, %q3, ... parameters.

If only one qualifier/qualifiers command was given, then the sep%q1 flag is equivalent to sep%q.

sep%q= ,_ if exactly one qualifier/qualifiers command was given The separator between each set of qualifiers of a single claim. This is the value separator for the %q parameter.

If only one qualifier/qualifiers command was given, then this flag is equivalent to sep%q1.

;-)_ if more than one qualifier/qualifiers command was given
sep%r= 0 default The separator between each pair of references of a single claim. This is the value separator for the %r parameter.
_ if the raw flag was given for the reference/references command
punc= 0 default A punctuation mark placed at the end of the output. This will be placed on the %s parameter applied to the last claim in the list.

This allows any references to be placed after the punctuation mark when the output is used as part of a sentence.

Examples

Parameters and output types Example Description
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P395 = ""

[string]

{{#invoke:wd|property|Q55|P395}}

NL
Gets a literal string value.
P395 = ""

[string]

{{#invoke:wd|property|P395}}

NL
If the модул is transcluded on the Нидерландия page (which is linked to Q55), then the Q55 can be omitted.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P395 = "NL"

[string]

{{#invoke:wd|property|eid=Q55|P395}}

NL
An entity-ID can also be given using the eid= argument.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P395 = ""

[string]

{{#invoke:wd|property|edit|Q55|P395}}

NL Edit this on Wikidata
Adds a clickable icon that may be used to edit the returned value on Wikidata.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P395 = ""

[string]

{{#invoke:wd|property|edit@end|Q55|P395}}

NLEdit this on Wikidata
Places the edit icon at the end of the line.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население"

[quantity]

{{#invoke:wd|property|normal+|Q55|P1082}}

17 000 000
Gets a single property value from claims with a 'normal' rank or higher.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население"

[quantity]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|normal+|Q55|P1082}}

17 000 000, 16 829 289, 16 779 575, 10 026 773
Gets multiple property values from claims with a 'normal' rank or higher.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население", P585 = "дата"

[quantity], [time]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifier|normal+|Q55|P1082|P585}}

17 000 000 (21 март 2016), 16 829 289 (26 август 2014), 16 779 575 (2013), 10 026 773 (1950)
Gets a single qualifier value for each claim, additional to the property value.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население", P585 = "дата"

[quantity], [time], [reference]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifier|references|normal+|Q55|P1082|P585}}

17 000 000 (21 март 2016),[1] 16 829 289 (26 август 2014),[2] 16 779 575 (2013),[3] 10 026 773 (1950)[3]
Gets references for each claim.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население"

[quantity], [reference]

A total of {{#invoke:wd|property|references|Q55|P1082}} people live in the Netherlands.

A total of 17 000 000[1] people live in the Netherlands.
Gets a property with its references.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население"

[quantity], [reference]

The Netherlands has a population of {{#invoke:wd|property|references|Q55|P1082|punc=.}}

The Netherlands has a population of 17 000 000.[1]
Adds a punctuation mark at the end of the output, in front of the references.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население", P585 = "дата"

[quantity], [time], [reference]

<ul>{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifier|references|normal+|Q55|P1082|P585|format=<li>%p[%r][<ul><li>%q</li></ul>]</li>}}</ul>

  • 17 000 000[1]
    • 21 март 2016
  • 16 829 289[2]
    • 26 август 2014
  • 16 779 575[3]
    • 2013
  • 10 026 773[3]
    • 1950
Returns the output in a custom format.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население", P585 = "дата"

[time]

{{#invoke:wd|qualifier|normal+|Q55|P1082|P585}}

21 март 2016; 26 август 2014; 2013; 1950
Gets a single qualifier per claim, by default for multiple matching claims.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население", P585 = "дата"

[time]

{{#invoke:wd|qualifier|normal+|single|Q55|P1082|P585}}

21 март 2016
To get a single qualifier for only a single claim, give the single flag too so that only a single claim will be accessed.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население", P585 = "дата"

[time]

{{#invoke:wd|qualifier|Q55|P1082|16829289|P585}}

26 август 2014
Gets a qualifier from claims for which the (raw) property value matches a given literal value.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население", P585 = "дата"

[time]

{{#invoke:wd|qualifier|mdy|Q55|P1082|16829289|P585}}

август 26, 2014
Gets dates in month-day-year order.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население", P585 = "дата"

[time]

{{#invoke:wd|qualifier|raw|Q55|P1082|16829289|P585}}

2014-8-26
Gets a raw date value.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население"

[reference]

{{#invoke:wd|references|Q55|P1082|16829289}}

[2]
Gets the references from a particular claim.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1082 = "население"

[reference]

{{#invoke:wd|references|raw|Q55|P1082|16829289}}

http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?VW=T&DM=SLNL&PA=37296ned&LA=NL; дата на проверка: 26 август 2014.
Gets references from a particular claim in their raw form.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1081 = "индекс на човешко развитие"

[quantity], [reference]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|references|Q55|P1081}}

0,787, 0,799, 0,829,[4] 0,861, 0,877,[4] 0,891, 0,909,[4] 0,919,[4] 0,920,[4] 0,920,[4] 0,922[4]
Gets properties from each claim with any references they have.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1081 = "индекс на човешко развитие"

[quantity], [reference]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|references|sourced|Q55|P1081}}

0,829,[4] 0,877,[4] 0,909,[4] 0,919,[4] 0,920,[4] 0,920,[4] 0,922[4]
Only gets properties from claims that have at least one reference.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2855 = "", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|qualifier|Q55|P2855|P518}}

Храна
Gets a single qualifier value (for each matching claim).
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2855 = "", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|qualifiers|Q55|P2855|P518}}

Храна, Лекарство, Технически помощни средства, Списание, книга, Изкуство, Антика, фризьор, Хотел, спорт, вода
Gets multiple qualifier values (for each matching claim).
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2855 = "", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[quantity], [entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifiers|Q55|P2855|P518}}

21%, 6% (Храна, Лекарство, Технически помощни средства, Списание, книга, Изкуство, Антика, фризьор, Хотел, спорт, вода)
Gets multiple property values along with multiple qualifier values.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2855 = "", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[quantity], [entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifiers|Q55|P2855|P518|sep=_+_|sep%s=|sep%q=_/_}}

21% + 6% (Храна / Лекарство / Технически помощни средства / Списание / книга / Изкуство / Антика / фризьор / Хотел / спорт / вода)
Returns the output with custom separators.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P35 = "държавен глава", P580 = "начало", P582 = "край"

[entity label], [time]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifier|qualifier|normal+|Q55|P35|P580|P582}}

Вилем-Александър Орански (30 април 2013), Беатрикс Нидерландска (30 април 1980; 30 април 2013), Юлиана Нидерландска (4 септември 1948; 30 април 1980), Вилхелмина Нидерландска (23 ноември 1890; 30 април 1980)
Gets two different qualifier values for each claim.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P35 = "държавен глава", P580 = "начало", P582 = "край"

[entity label], [time]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifier|qualifier|normal+|Q55|P35|P580|P582|sep%q=_–_}}

Вилем-Александър Орански (30 април 2013), Беатрикс Нидерландска (30 април 1980 – 30 април 2013), Юлиана Нидерландска (4 септември 1948 – 30 април 1980), Вилхелмина Нидерландска (23 ноември 1890 – 30 април 1980)
Returns the output with a custom separator.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P35 = "държавен глава", P580 = "начало", P582 = "край"

[entity label], [time]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifier|qualifier|normal+|Q55|P35|P580|P582|format=%p[ <span style="font-size:smaller">(%q1[ – %q2])</span>][%s][%r]}}

Вилем-Александър Орански (30 април 2013), Беатрикс Нидерландска (30 април 1980 – 30 април 2013), Юлиана Нидерландска (4 септември 1948 – 30 април 1980), Вилхелмина Нидерландска (23 ноември 1890 – 30 април 1980)
Returns the output in a custom format instead of with a custom separator.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P35 = "държавен глава", Q29574 = "Беатрикс Нидерландска", P580 = "начало", P582 = "край"

[entity label], [time]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifier|raw|qualifier|normal+|Q55|P35|Q29574|P580|P582}}

Беатрикс Нидерландска (1980-4-30 – 30 април 2013)
Gets a property with qualifiers from claims for which the property matches a given Q-identifier, with one of the qualifier values in its raw form.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = "валута", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifiers|normal+|current|Q55|P38|P518}}

Евро, Щатски долар
Gets claims that are currently valid.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = валута", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|linked|qualifiers|normal+|current|Q55|P38|P518}}

Евро, Щатски долар
Gets claims with linked property values.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = валута", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|qualifiers|linked|normal+|current|Q55|P38|P518}}

Евро, Щатски долар
Gets claims with linked qualifier values.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = валута", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|linked|short|qualifiers|linked|normal+|current|Q55|P38|P518}}

Евро, Щатски долар
Gets claims with linked property and qualifier values, with short property values wherever available.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = валута", Q4917 = "Щатски долар", P518 = "отнася се към част"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|qualifiers|normal+|current|Q55|P38|Q4917|P518}}

Gets qualifiers from claims for which the (raw) property value matches a given Q-identifier.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = валута", P518 = "отнася се към част", Q27561 = ""

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|normal+|current|Q55|P38|P518=Q27561}}

Щатски долар
Gets properties from claims for which a (raw) qualifier value matches a given Q-identifier.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = валута"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|normal+|former|Q55|P38}}

Нидерландски гулден
Gets claims that were valid in the past.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = валута"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|raw|normal+|former|Q55|P38}}

Q788472
Gets raw property values.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P38 = валута"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|properties|raw|linked|normal+|former|Q55|P38}}

Q788472
Gets raw property values that are linked to Wikidata.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1549 = "название на местното население"

[monolingual text]

{{#invoke:wd|property|Q55|P1549}}

Gets a monolingual text value in the current wiki's language.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P1549 = "название на местното население", P2439 = "език", Q36846 = ""

[monolingual text]

{{#invoke:wd|property|multilanguage|Q55|P1549}}

Gets a monolingual text value in any available language.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2884 = "напрежение на мрежата"

[quantity]

{{#invoke:wd|property|Q55|P2884}}

230 V
Gets a quantity value with its associated unit of measurement.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2884 = "напрежение на мрежата"

[quantity]

{{#invoke:wd|property|linked|Q55|P2884}}

230 V
Gets a quantity value with a linked unit of measurement.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2884 = "напрежение на мрежата"

[quantity]

{{#invoke:wd|property|raw|Q55|P2884}}

230
Gets a raw quantity value.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2884 = "напрежение на мрежата"

[quantity]

{{#invoke:wd|property|unit|Q55|P2884}}

V
Gets only the unit of measurement.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P2884 = "напрежение на мрежата"

[quantity]

{{#invoke:wd|property|unit|raw|Q55|P2884}}

V
Gets the raw unit of measurement.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P625 = "географски координати"

[globe coordinate]

{{#invoke:wd|property|Q55|P625}}

52°19'N, 5°33'E
Gets a globe coordinate value.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P625 = "географски координати"

[globe coordinate]

{{#invoke:wd|property|linked|Q55|P625}}

52°19'N, 5°33'E
Gets a linked globe coordinate value.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P625 = "географски координати"

[globe coordinate]

{{#invoke:wd|property|raw|Q55|P625}}

52/19/N/5/33/E
Gets a raw globe coordinate value.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P625 = "географски координати"

[globe coordinate]

{{#invoke:wd|property|Q55|coord}}

52°19'N, 5°33'E
A property alias can be used instead of the P-identifier.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P41 = "изображение на знамето"

[commons media]

{{#invoke:wd|property|linked|Q55|P41}}

Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Gets a media file name and links to it on Commons.
Q55 = "Нидерландия", P41 = "изображение на знамето"

[commons media]

{{#invoke:wd|property|raw|Q55|P41|format=\[\[File:%p {{!}} thumb {{!}} left\]\]}}

Flag of the Netherlands.svg
A Commons media file can be included on the page as-is by omitting the linked and raw flags, but by using the raw flag it can be freely formatted.
Q915684 = "", P2534 = ""

[math]

{{#invoke:wd|property|Q915684|P2534}}

Gets a mathematical expression.
Q6256 = "страна", P3896 = ""

[geographic shape]

{{#invoke:wd|property|linked|Q6256|P3896}}

Data:Naturalearthdata.com/admin-0-countries-no-antarctica.map
Gets a geographic shape data file name and links to it on Commons.
Q4917 = "Щатски долар"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|label|Q4917}}

Щатски долар
Gets an item's label.
Q4917 = "Щатски долар"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|label|short|linked|Q4917}}

Щатски долар
Gets an item's short and linked label.
P38 = валута"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|label|P38}}

валута
Gets a property's label.
P38 = валута"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|label|linked|P38}}

валута
Gets a property's label that is linked to Wikidata.
Q776 = "Утрехт"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|label|Q776}}

Утрехт
Gets an item's label.
Q776 = "Утрехт"

[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|label|linked|Q776}}

Утрехт
Gets an item's linked label.


[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|label}}

Утрехт
If the модул is transcluded on the Утрехт (провинция) page (which is linked to Q776), then the Q776 can be omitted.


[entity label]

{{#invoke:wd|label|raw}}

Q776
If just the label command with the raw flag is given, then the Q-identifier of the item connected to the current page is returned.
Q776 = "Утрехт"

[page title]

{{#invoke:wd|title|Q776}}

Утрехт (провинция)
Gets the title of the page on the current wiki that is linked to the given item.
Q776 = "Утрехт"

[page title]

{{#invoke:wd|title|linked|Q776}}

Утрехт (провинция)
Gets the linked title of the page on the current wiki that is linked to the given item.


[page title]

{{#invoke:wd|title}}

Утрехт (провинция)
If the модул is transcluded on the Утрехт (провинция) page (which is linked to Q776), then the Q776 can be omitted.
Q55 = "Нидерландия"

[entity alias]

{{#invoke:wd|alias|Q55}}

Кралство Нидерландия
Gets one of an item's aliases.
Q55 = "Нидерландия"

[entity alias]

{{#invoke:wd|aliases|Q55}}

Кралство Нидерландия, Холандия
Gets all of an item's aliases.
Q55 = "Нидерландия"

[entity alias]

{{#invoke:wd|alias|linked|Q55}}

Кралство Нидерландия
Gets a linked alias from an item.


[entity alias]

{{#invoke:wd|alias}}

Кралство Нидерландия
If the модул is transcluded on the Нидерландия page (which is linked to Q55), then the Q55 can be omitted.

Example references

See also


-- Original module located at [[:en:Module:Wd]], [[:en:Module:Wd/i18n]] and [[:en:Module:Wd/aliasesP]].

local p = {}
local arg = ...
local i18n

function loadSubmodules(frame)
	local title
	
	if frame then
		-- current module invoked by page/template, get its title from frame
		title = frame:getTitle()
	else
		-- current module included by other module, get its title from ...
		title = arg
	end
	
	i18n = i18n or require(title .. "/i18n")
	p.aliasesP = p.aliasesP or mw.loadData(title .. "/aliasesP")
end

p.valueCommands = {
	property   = "property",
	properties = "properties",
	qualifier  = "qualifier",
	qualifiers = "qualifiers",
	reference  = "reference",
	references = "references"
}

p.nameCommands = {
	label      = "label",
	title      = "title",
	alias      = "alias",
	aliases    = "aliases"
}

p.flags = {
	linked        = "linked",
	short         = "short",
	raw           = "raw",
	multilanguage = "multilanguage",
	unit          = "unit",
	-------------
	preferred     = "preferred",
	normal        = "normal",
	deprecated    = "deprecated",
	best          = "best",
	future        = "future",
	current       = "current",
	former        = "former",
	edit          = "edit",
	editAtEnd     = "edit@end",
	mdy           = "mdy",
	single        = "single",
	sourced       = "sourced"
}

p.args = {
	eid = "eid"
}

local aliasesQ = {
	percentage              = "Q11229",
	prolepticJulianCalendar = "Q1985786",
	citeWeb                 = "Q5637226",
	citeQ                   = "Q22321052"
}

local parameters = {
	property  = "%p",
	qualifier = "%q",
	reference = "%r",
	alias     = "%a",
	separator = "%s",
	general   = "%x"
}

local formats = {
	property              = "%p[%s][%r]",
	qualifier             = "%q[%s][%r]",
	reference             = "%r",
	propertyWithQualifier = "%p[ <span style=\"font-size:smaller\">(%q)</span>][%s][%r]",
	alias                 = "%a[%s]"
}

local hookNames = {              -- {level_1, level_2}
	[parameters.property]         = {"getProperty"},
	[parameters.reference]        = {"getReferences", "getReference"},
	[parameters.qualifier]        = {"getAllQualifiers"},
	[parameters.qualifier.."\\d"] = {"getQualifiers", "getQualifier"},
	[parameters.alias]            = {"getAlias"}
}

-- default value objects, should NOT be mutated but instead copied
local defaultSeparators = {
	["sep"]      = {" "},
	["sep%s"]    = {","},
	["sep%q"]    = {"; "},
	["sep%q\\d"] = {", "},
	["sep%r"]    = nil,  -- none
	["punc"]     = nil   -- none
}

local rankTable = {
	["preferred"]  = 1,
	["normal"]     = 2,
	["deprecated"] = 3
}

local Config = {}
Config.__index = Config

-- allows for recursive calls
function Config.new()
	local cfg = {}
	setmetatable(cfg, Config)
	
	cfg.separators = {
		-- single value objects wrapped in arrays so that we can pass by reference
		["sep"]   = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep"])},
		["sep%s"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%s"])},
		["sep%q"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%q"])},
		["sep%r"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%r"])},
		["punc"]  = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["punc"])}
	}
	
	cfg.entity = nil
	cfg.entityID = nil
	cfg.propertyID = nil
	cfg.propertyValue = nil
	cfg.qualifierIDs = {}
	cfg.qualifierIDsAndValues = {}
	
	cfg.bestRank = true
	cfg.ranks = {true, true, false}  -- preferred = true, normal = true, deprecated = false
	cfg.foundRank = #cfg.ranks
	cfg.flagBest = false
	cfg.flagRank = false
	
	cfg.periods = {true, true, true}  -- future = true, current = true, former = true
	cfg.flagPeriod = false
	
	cfg.mdyDate = false
	cfg.singleClaim = false
	cfg.sourcedOnly = false
	cfg.editable = false
	cfg.editAtEnd = false
	
	cfg.pageTitle = false
	
	cfg.langCode = mw.language.getContentLanguage().code
	cfg.langName = mw.language.fetchLanguageName(cfg.langCode, cfg.langCode)
	cfg.langObj = mw.language.new(cfg.langCode)
	
	cfg.states = {}
	cfg.states.qualifiersCount = 0
	cfg.curState = nil
	
	cfg.prefetchedRefs = nil
	
	return cfg
end

local State = {}
State.__index = State

function State.new(cfg)
	local stt = {}
	setmetatable(stt, State)
	
	stt.conf = cfg
	
	stt.results = {}
	
	stt.parsedFormat = {}
	stt.separator = {}
	stt.movSeparator = {}
	stt.puncMark = {}
	
	stt.linked = false
	stt.rawValue = false
	stt.shortName = false
	stt.anyLanguage = false
	stt.unitOnly = false
	stt.singleValue = false
	
	return stt
end

function replaceAlias(id)
	if p.aliasesP[id] then
		id = p.aliasesP[id]
	end
	
	return id
end

function errorText(code, param) 
	local text = i18n["errors"][code]
	if param then text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "$1", param) end
	return text
end

function throwError(errorMessage, param)
	error(errorText(errorMessage, param))
end

function replaceDecimalMark(num)
	return mw.ustring.gsub(num, "[.]", i18n['numeric']['decimal-mark'], 1)
end

function replaceSpecialChar(chr)
	if chr == '_' then
		-- replace underscores with spaces
		return ' '
	else
		return chr
	end
end

function replaceSpecialChars(str)
	local chr
	local esc = false
	local strOut = ""
	
	for i = 1, #str do
		chr = str:sub(i,i)
		
		if not esc then
			if chr == '\\' then
				esc = true
			else
				strOut = strOut .. replaceSpecialChar(chr)
			end
		else
			strOut = strOut .. chr
			esc = false
		end
	end
	
	return strOut
end

function buildWikilink(target, label)
	if not label or target == label then
		return "[[" .. target .. "]]"
	else
		return "[[" .. target .. "|" .. label .. "]]"
	end
end

-- used to make frame.args mutable, to replace #frame.args (which is always 0)
-- with the actual amount and to simply copy tables
function copyTable(tIn)
	if not tIn then
		return nil
	end
	
	local tOut = {}
	
	for i, v in pairs(tIn) do
		tOut[i] = v
	end
	
	return tOut
end

-- used to merge output arrays together;
-- note that it currently mutates the first input array
function mergeArrays(a1, a2)
	for i = 1, #a2 do
		a1[#a1 + 1] = a2[i]
	end
	
	return a1
end

function split(str, del)
	local out = {}
	local i, j = str:find(del)
	
	if i and j then
		out[1] = str:sub(1, i - 1)
		out[2] = str:sub(j + 1)
	else
		out[1] = str
	end
	
	return out
end

function parseWikidataURL(url)
	local id
	
	if url:match('^http[s]?://') then
		id = split(url, "Q")
		
		if id[2] then
			return "Q" .. id[2]
		end
	end
	
	return nil
end

function parseDate(dateStr, precision)
	precision = precision or "d"
	
	local i, j, index, ptr
	local parts = {nil, nil, nil}
	
	if dateStr == nil then
		return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
	end
	
	-- 'T' for snak values, '/' for outputs with '/Julian' attached
	i, j = dateStr:find("[T/]")
	
	if i then
		dateStr = dateStr:sub(1, i-1)
	end
	
	local from = 1
	
	if dateStr:sub(1,1) == "-" then
		-- this is a negative number, look further ahead
		from = 2
	end
	
	index = 1
	ptr = 1
	
	i, j = dateStr:find("-", from)
	
	if i then
		-- year
		parts[index] = tonumber(mw.ustring.gsub(dateStr:sub(ptr, i-1), "^\+(.+)$", "%1"), 10)  -- remove '+' sign (explicitly give base 10 to prevent error)
		
		if parts[index] == -0 then
			parts[index] = tonumber("0")  -- for some reason, 'parts[index] = 0' may actually store '-0', so parse from string instead
		end
		
		if precision == "y" then
			-- we're done
			return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
		end
		
		index = index + 1
		ptr = i + 1
		
		i, j = dateStr:find("-", ptr)
		
		if i then
			-- month
			parts[index] = tonumber(dateStr:sub(ptr, i-1), 10)
			
			if precision == "m" then
				-- we're done
				return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
			end
			
			index = index + 1
			ptr = i + 1
		end
	end
	
	if dateStr:sub(ptr) ~= "" then
		-- day if we have month, month if we have year, or year
		parts[index] = tonumber(dateStr:sub(ptr), 10)
	end
	
	return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
end

function datePrecedesDate(aY, aM, aD, bY, bM, bD)
	if aY == nil or bY == nil then
		return nil
	end
	aM = aM or 1
	aD = aD or 1
	bM = bM or 1
	bD = bD or 1
	
	if aY < bY then
		return true
	end
	
	if aY > bY then
		return false
	end
	
	if aM < bM then
		return true
	end
	
	if aM > bM then
		return false
	end
	
	if aD < bD then
		return true
	end
	
	return false
end

function getHookName(param, index)
	if hookNames[param] then
		return hookNames[param][index]
	elseif param:len() > 2 then
		return hookNames[param:sub(1, 2).."\\d"][index]
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function alwaysTrue()
	return true
end

-- The following function parses a format string.
--
-- The example below shows how a parsed string is structured in memory.
-- Variables other than 'str' and 'child' are left out for clarity's sake.
--
-- Example:
-- "A %p B [%s[%q1]] C [%r] D"
--
-- Structure:
-- [
--   {
--     str = "A "
--   },
--   {
--     str = "%p"
--   },
--   {
--     str = " B ",
--     child =
--     [
--       {
--         str = "%s",
--         child =
--         [
--           {
--             str = "%q1"
--           }
--         ]
--       }
--     ]
--   },
--   {
--     str = " C ",
--     child =
--     [
--       {
--         str = "%r"
--       }
--     ]
--   },
--   {
--     str = " D"
--   }
-- ]
--
function parseFormat(str)
	local chr, esc, param, root, cur, prev, new
	local params = {}
	
	local function newObject(array)
		local obj = {}  -- new object
		obj.str = ""
		
		array[#array + 1] = obj  -- array{object}
		obj.parent = array
		
		return obj
	end
	
	local function endParam()
		if param > 0 then
			if cur.str ~= "" then
				cur.str = "%"..cur.str
				cur.param = true
				params[cur.str] = true
				cur.parent.req[cur.str] = true
				prev = cur
				cur = newObject(cur.parent)
			end
			param = 0
		end
	end
	
	root = {}  -- array
	root.req = {}
	cur = newObject(root)
	prev = nil
	
	esc = false
	param = 0
	
	for i = 1, #str do
		chr = str:sub(i,i)
		
		if not esc then
			if chr == '\\' then
				endParam()
				esc = true
			elseif chr == '%' then
				endParam()
				if cur.str ~= "" then
					cur = newObject(cur.parent)
				end
				param = 2
			elseif chr == '[' then
				endParam()
				if prev and cur.str == "" then
					table.remove(cur.parent)
					cur = prev
				end
				cur.child = {}  -- new array
				cur.child.req = {}
				cur.child.parent = cur
				cur = newObject(cur.child)
			elseif chr == ']' then
				endParam()
				if cur.parent.parent then
					new = newObject(cur.parent.parent.parent)
					if cur.str == "" then
						table.remove(cur.parent)
					end
					cur = new
				end
			else
				if param > 1 then
					param = param - 1
				elseif param == 1 then
					if not chr:match('%d') then
						endParam()
					end
				end
				
				cur.str = cur.str .. replaceSpecialChar(chr)
			end
		else
			cur.str = cur.str .. chr
			esc = false
		end
		
		prev = nil
	end
	
	endParam()
	
	-- make sure that at least one required parameter has been defined
	if not next(root.req) then
		throwError("missing-required-parameter")
	end
	
	-- make sure that the separator parameter "%s" is not amongst the required parameters
	if root.req[parameters.separator] then
		throwError("extra-required-parameter", parameters.separator)
	end
	
	return root, params
end

function sortOnRank(claims)
	local rankPos
	local ranks = {{}, {}, {}, {}}  -- preferred, normal, deprecated, (default)
	local sorted = {}
	
	for i, v in ipairs(claims) do
		rankPos = rankTable[v.rank] or 4
		ranks[rankPos][#ranks[rankPos] + 1] = v
	end
	
	sorted = ranks[1]
	sorted = mergeArrays(sorted, ranks[2])
	sorted = mergeArrays(sorted, ranks[3])
	
	return sorted
end

-- if id == nil then item connected to current page is used
function Config:getLabel(id, raw, link, short)
	local label = nil
	local title = nil
	local prefix= ""
	local lang
	
	if not id then
		id = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
		
		if not id then
			return ""
		end
	end
	
	id = id:upper()  -- just to be sure
	
	if raw then
		-- check if given id actually exists
		if mw.wikibase.getEntity(id) then
			label = id
			
			if id:sub(1,1) == "P" then
				prefix = "Property:"
			end
		end
		
		prefix = "d:" .. prefix
		
		title = label  -- may be nil
	else
		-- try short name first if requested
		if short then
			label = p._property({p.aliasesP.shortName, [p.args.eid] = id})  -- get short name
			
			if label == "" then
				label = nil
			end
		end
		
		-- get label
		if not label then
			label, lang = mw.wikibase.getLabelWithLang(id)
			
			-- don't allow language fallback
			if lang ~= self.langCode then
				label = nil
			end
		end
	end
	
	if not label then
		label = ""
	elseif link then
		-- build a link if requested
		if not title then
			if id:sub(1,1) == "Q" then
				title = mw.wikibase.sitelink(id)
			elseif id:sub(1,1) == "P" then
				-- properties have no sitelink, link to Wikidata instead
				title = id
				prefix = "d:Property:"
			end
		end
		
		if title then
			label = buildWikilink(prefix .. title, label)
		end
	end
	
	return label
end

-- if id == nil then item connected to current page is used
function Config:getUnitSymbol(id, raw, link, short)
	local symbol = nil
	local title = nil
	local lang
	
	if not id then
		id = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
		
		if not id then
			return ""
		end
	end
	
	id = id:upper()  -- just to be sure

	-- try unit symbol first
	symbol = p._property({p.aliasesP.unitSymbol, [p.args.eid] = id})  -- get unit symbol
	
	if symbol == "" then
		symbol = nil
	end
	
	-- get label
	if not symbol then
		symbol, lang = mw.wikibase.getLabelWithLang(id)
		
		-- don't allow language fallback
		if lang ~= self.langCode then
			symbol = nil
		end
	end
	
	if not symbol then
		symbol = ""
	elseif link then
		-- build a link if requested
		if not title then
			title = mw.wikibase.sitelink(id)
		end
		
		if title then
			symbol = buildWikilink(title, symbol)
		end
	end
	
	return symbol
end

function Config:getEditIcon()
	local value = ""
	local prefix = ""
	local front = " "
	local back = ""
	
	if self.entityID:sub(1,1) == "P" then
		prefix = "Property:"
	end
	
	if self.editAtEnd then
		front = '<span style="float:'
		
		if self.langObj:isRTL() then
			front = front .. 'left'
		else
			front = front .. 'right'
		end
		
		front = front .. '">'
		back = '</span>'
	end
	
	value = "[[File:Blue pencil.svg|frameless|text-top|10px|alt=" .. i18n['info']['edit-on-wikidata'] .. "|link=https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/" .. prefix .. self.entityID .. "?uselang=" .. self.langCode
	
	if self.propertyID then
		value = value .. "#" .. self.propertyID
	elseif self.pageTitle then
		value = value .. "#sitelinks-wikipedia"
	end
	
	value = value .. "|" .. i18n['info']['edit-on-wikidata'] .. "]]"
	
	return front .. value .. back
end

-- used to create the final output string when it's all done, so that for references the
-- function extensionTag("ref", ...) is only called when they really ended up in the final output
function Config:concatValues(valuesArray)
	local outString = ""
	local j, skip
	
	for i = 1, #valuesArray do
		-- check if this is a reference
		if valuesArray[i].refHash then
			j = i - 1
			skip = false
			
			-- skip this reference if it is part of a continuous row of references that already contains the exact same reference
			while valuesArray[j] and valuesArray[j].refHash do
				if valuesArray[i].refHash == valuesArray[j].refHash then
					skip = true
					break
				end
				j = j - 1
			end
			
			if not skip then
				-- add <ref> tag with the reference's hash as its name (to deduplicate references)
				outString = outString .. mw.getCurrentFrame():extensionTag("ref", valuesArray[i][1], {name = "wikidata-" .. valuesArray[i].refHash .. "-v" .. i18n['cite']['version']})
			end
		else
			outString = outString .. valuesArray[i][1]
		end
	end
	
	return outString
end

function Config:convertUnit(unit, raw, link, short, unitOnly)
	local space = " "
	local label = ""
	
	if unit == "" or unit == "1" then
		return nil
	end
	
	if unitOnly then
		space = ""
	end
	
	itemID = parseWikidataURL(unit)
	
	if itemID then
		if itemID == aliasesQ.percentage then
			return "%"
		else
			label = self:getUnitSymbol(itemID, raw, link, short)
			
			if label ~= "" then
				return space .. label
			end
		end
	end
	
	return ""
end

function Config:getValue(snak, raw, link, short, anyLang, unitOnly, noSpecial)
	if snak.snaktype == 'value' then
		local datatype = snak.datavalue.type
		local subtype = snak.datatype
		local datavalue = snak.datavalue.value
		
		if datatype == 'string' then
			if subtype == 'url' and link then
				-- create link explicitly
				if raw then
					-- will render as a linked number like [1]
					return "[" .. datavalue .. "]"
				else
					return "[" .. datavalue .. " " .. datavalue .. "]"
				end
			elseif subtype == 'commonsMedia' then
				if link then
					return buildWikilink("c:File:" .. datavalue, datavalue)
				elseif not raw then
					return "[[File:" .. datavalue .. "]]"
				else
					return datavalue
				end
			elseif subtype == 'geo-shape' and link then
				return buildWikilink("c:" .. datavalue, datavalue)
			elseif subtype == 'math' and not raw then
				return mw.getCurrentFrame():extensionTag("math", datavalue)
			elseif subtype == 'external-id' and link then
				local url = p._property({p.aliasesP.formatterURL, [p.args.eid] = snak.property})  -- get formatter URL
				
				if url ~= "" then
					url = mw.ustring.gsub(url, "$1", datavalue)
					return "[" .. url .. " " .. datavalue .. "]"
				else
					return datavalue
				end
			else
				return datavalue
			end
		elseif datatype == 'monolingualtext' then
			if anyLang then
				return datavalue['text'], datavalue['language']
			elseif datavalue['language'] == self.langCode then
				return datavalue['text']
			else
				return nil
			end
		elseif datatype == 'quantity' then
			local value = ""
			local unit
			
			if not unitOnly then
				-- get value and strip + signs from front
				value = mw.ustring.gsub(datavalue['amount'], "^\+(.+)$", "%1")
				
				if raw then
					return value
				end
				
				-- replace decimal mark based on locale
				value = replaceDecimalMark(value)
				
				-- add delimiters for readability
				value = i18n.addDelimiters(value)
			end
			
			unit = self:convertUnit(datavalue['unit'], raw, link, short, unitOnly)
			
			if unit then
				value = value .. unit
			end
			
			return value
		elseif datatype == 'time' then
			local y, m, d, p, yDiv, yRound, yFull, value, calendarID, dateStr
			local yFactor = 1
			local sign = 1
			local prefix = ""
			local suffix = ""
			local mayAddCalendar = false
			local calendar = ""
			local precision = datavalue['precision']
			
			if precision == 11 then
				p = "d"
			elseif precision == 10 then
				p = "m"
			else
				p = "y"
				yFactor = 10^(9-precision)
			end
			
			y, m, d = parseDate(datavalue['time'], p)
			
			if y < 0 then
				sign = -1
				y = y * sign
			end
			
			-- if precision is tens/hundreds/thousands/millions/billions of years
			if precision <= 8 then
				yDiv = y / yFactor
				
				-- if precision is tens/hundreds/thousands of years
				if precision >= 6 then
					mayAddCalendar = true
					
					if precision <= 7 then
						-- round centuries/millenniums up (e.g. 20th century or 3rd millennium)
						yRound = math.ceil(yDiv)
						
						if not raw then
							if precision == 6 then
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['millennium']
							else
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['century']
							end
							
							suffix = i18n.getOrdinalSuffix(yRound) .. suffix
						else
							-- if not verbose, take the first year of the century/millennium
							-- (e.g. 1901 for 20th century or 2001 for 3rd millennium)
							yRound = (yRound - 1) * yFactor + 1
						end
					else
						-- precision == 8
						-- round decades down (e.g. 2010s)
						yRound = math.floor(yDiv) * yFactor
						
						if not raw then
							prefix = i18n['datetime']['prefixes']['decade-period']
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['decade-period']
						end
					end
					
					if raw and sign < 0 then
						-- if BCE then compensate for "counting backwards"
						-- (e.g. -2019 for 2010s BCE, -2000 for 20th century BCE or -3000 for 3rd millennium BCE)
						yRound = yRound + yFactor - 1
					end
				else
					local yReFactor, yReDiv, yReRound
					
					-- round to nearest for tens of thousands of years or more
					yRound = math.floor(yDiv + 0.5)
					
					if yRound == 0 then
						if precision <= 2 and y ~= 0 then
							yReFactor = 1e6
							yReDiv = y / yReFactor
							yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)
							
							if yReDiv == yReRound then
								-- change precision to millions of years only if we have a whole number of them
								precision = 3
								yFactor = yReFactor
								yRound = yReRound
							end
						end
						
						if yRound == 0 then
							-- otherwise, take the unrounded (original) number of years
							precision = 5
							yFactor = 1
							yRound = y
							mayAddCalendar = true
						end
					end
					
					if precision >= 1 and y ~= 0 then
						yFull = yRound * yFactor
						
						yReFactor = 1e9
						yReDiv = yFull / yReFactor
						yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)
						
						if yReDiv == yReRound then
							-- change precision to billions of years if we're in that range
							precision = 0
							yFactor = yReFactor
							yRound = yReRound
						else
							yReFactor = 1e6
							yReDiv = yFull / yReFactor
							yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)
							
							if yReDiv == yReRound then
								-- change precision to millions of years if we're in that range
								precision = 3
								yFactor = yReFactor
								yRound = yReRound
							end
						end
					end
					
					if not raw then
						if precision == 3 then
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['million-years']
						elseif precision == 0 then
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['billion-years']
						else
							yRound = yRound * yFactor
							if yRound == 1 then
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['year']
							else
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['years']
							end
						end
					else
						yRound = yRound * yFactor
					end
				end
			else
				yRound = y
				mayAddCalendar = true
			end
			
			if mayAddCalendar then
				calendarID = parseWikidataURL(datavalue['calendarmodel'])
				
				if calendarID and calendarID == aliasesQ.prolepticJulianCalendar then
					if not raw then
						if link then
							calendar = " ("..buildWikilink(i18n['datetime']['julian-calendar'], i18n['datetime']['julian'])..")"
						else
							calendar = " ("..i18n['datetime']['julian']..")"
						end
					else
						calendar = "/"..i18n['datetime']['julian']
					end
				end
			end
			
			if not raw then
				local ce = nil
				
				if sign < 0 then
					ce = i18n['datetime']['BCE']
				elseif precision <= 5 then
					ce = i18n['datetime']['CE']
				end
				
				if ce then
					if link then
						ce = buildWikilink(i18n['datetime']['common-era'], ce)
					end
					suffix = suffix .. " " .. ce
				end
				
				value = tostring(yRound)
				
				if m then
					dateStr = self.langObj:formatDate("F", "1-"..m.."-1")
					
					if d then
						if self.mdyDate then
							dateStr = dateStr .. " " .. d .. ","
						else
							dateStr = d .. " " .. dateStr
						end
					end
					
					value = dateStr .. " " .. value
				end
				
				value = prefix .. value .. suffix .. calendar
			else
				value = tostring(yRound * sign)
				
				if m then
					value = value .. "-" .. m
					
					if d then
						value = value .. "-" .. d
					end
				end
				
				value = value .. calendar
			end
			
			return value
		elseif datatype == 'globecoordinate' then
			-- logic from https://github.com/DataValues/Geo
			
			local precision, numDigits, strFormat, value, globe
			local latValue, latitude, latDegrees, latMinutes, latSeconds
			local lonValue, longitude, lonDegrees, lonMinutes, lonSeconds
			local latDirection, latDirectionN, latDirectionS, latDirectionEN
			local lonDirection, lonDirectionE, lonDirectionW, lonDirectionEN
			
			local latDirectionEN_N = "N"
			local latDirectionEN_S = "S"
			local lonDirectionEN_E = "E"
			local lonDirectionEN_W = "W"
			
			if not raw then
				latDirectionN = i18n['coord']['latitude-north']
				latDirectionS = i18n['coord']['latitude-south']
				lonDirectionE = i18n['coord']['longitude-east']
				lonDirectionW = i18n['coord']['longitude-west']
				
				degSymbol = i18n['coord']['degrees']
				minSymbol = i18n['coord']['minutes']
				secSymbol = i18n['coord']['seconds']
				separator = i18n['coord']['separator']
			else
				latDirectionN = latDirectionEN_N
				latDirectionS = latDirectionEN_S
				lonDirectionE = lonDirectionEN_E
				lonDirectionW = lonDirectionEN_W
				
				degSymbol = "/"
				minSymbol = "/"
				secSymbol = "/"
				separator = "/"
			end
			
			latitude = datavalue['latitude']
			longitude = datavalue['longitude']
			
			if latitude < 0 then
				latDirection = latDirectionS
				latDirectionEN = latDirectionEN_S
				latitude = math.abs(latitude)
			else
				latDirection = latDirectionN
				latDirectionEN = latDirectionEN_N
			end
			
			if longitude < 0 then
				lonDirection = lonDirectionW
				lonDirectionEN = lonDirectionEN_W
				longitude = math.abs(longitude)
			else
				lonDirection = lonDirectionE
				lonDirectionEN = lonDirectionEN_E
			end
			
			precision = datavalue['precision']
			
			latitude = math.floor(latitude / precision + 0.5) * precision
			longitude = math.floor(longitude / precision + 0.5) * precision
			
			numDigits = math.ceil(-math.log10(3600 * precision))
			
			if numDigits < 0 or numDigits == -0 then
				numDigits = tonumber("0")  -- for some reason, 'numDigits = 0' may actually store '-0', so parse from string instead
			end
			
			strFormat = "%." .. numDigits .. "f"
			
			-- use string.format() to strip decimal point followed by a zero (.0) for whole numbers
			latSeconds = tonumber(strFormat:format(math.floor(latitude * 3600 * 10^numDigits + 0.5) / 10^numDigits))
			lonSeconds = tonumber(strFormat:format(math.floor(longitude * 3600 * 10^numDigits + 0.5) / 10^numDigits))
			
			latMinutes = math.floor(latSeconds / 60)
			lonMinutes = math.floor(lonSeconds / 60)
			
			latSeconds = latSeconds - (latMinutes * 60)
			lonSeconds = lonSeconds - (lonMinutes * 60)
			
			latDegrees = math.floor(latMinutes / 60)
			lonDegrees = math.floor(lonMinutes / 60)
			
			latMinutes = latMinutes - (latDegrees * 60)
			lonMinutes = lonMinutes - (lonDegrees * 60)
			
			latValue = latDegrees .. degSymbol
			lonValue = lonDegrees .. degSymbol
			
			if precision < 1 then
				latValue = latValue .. latMinutes .. minSymbol
				lonValue = lonValue .. lonMinutes .. minSymbol
			end
			
			if precision < (1 / 60) then
				latSeconds = strFormat:format(latSeconds)
				lonSeconds = strFormat:format(lonSeconds)
				
				if not raw then
					-- replace decimal marks based on locale
					latSeconds = replaceDecimalMark(latSeconds)
					lonSeconds = replaceDecimalMark(lonSeconds)
				end
				
				latValue = latValue .. latSeconds .. secSymbol
				lonValue = lonValue .. lonSeconds .. secSymbol
			end
			
			latValue = latValue .. latDirection
			lonValue = lonValue .. lonDirection
			
			value = latValue .. separator .. lonValue
			
			if link then
				globe = parseWikidataURL(datavalue['globe'])
				
				if globe then
					globe = mw.wikibase.getEntity(globe):getLabel("en"):lower()
				else
					globe = "earth"
				end
				
				value = "[https://tools.wmflabs.org/geohack/geohack.php?language="..self.langCode.."&params="..latitude.."_"..latDirectionEN.."_"..longitude.."_"..lonDirectionEN.."_globe:"..globe.." "..value.."]"
			end
			
			return value
		elseif datatype == 'wikibase-entityid' then
			local label
			local itemID = datavalue['numeric-id']
			
			if subtype == 'wikibase-item' then
				itemID = "Q" .. itemID
			elseif subtype == 'wikibase-property' then
				itemID = "P" .. itemID
			else
				return '<strong class="error">' .. errorText('unknown-data-type', subtype) .. '</strong>'
			end
			
			label = self:getLabel(itemID, raw, link, short)
			
			if label == "" then
				label = nil
			end
			
			return label
		else
			return '<strong class="error">' .. errorText('unknown-data-type', datatype) .. '</strong>'
		end
	elseif snak.snaktype == 'somevalue' and not noSpecial then
		if raw then
			return " "  -- single space represents 'somevalue'
		else
			return i18n['values']['unknown']
		end
	elseif snak.snaktype == 'novalue' and not noSpecial then
		if raw then
			return ""  -- empty string represents 'novalue'
		else
			return i18n['values']['none']
		end
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function Config:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, qualifierID)
	local qualifiers
	
	if claim.qualifiers then qualifiers = claim.qualifiers[qualifierID] end
	
	if qualifiers and qualifiers[1] then
		return self:getValue(qualifiers[1], true)  -- raw = true
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function Config:snakEqualsValue(snak, value)
	local snakValue = self:getValue(snak, true)  -- raw = true
	
	if snakValue and snak.snaktype == 'value' and snak.datavalue.type == 'wikibase-entityid' then value = value:upper() end
	
	return snakValue == value
end

function Config:setRank(rank)
	local rankPos
	
	if rank == p.flags.best then
		self.bestRank = true
		self.flagBest = true  -- mark that 'best' flag was given
		return
	end
	
	if rank:sub(1,9) == p.flags.preferred then
		rankPos = 1
	elseif rank:sub(1,6) == p.flags.normal then
		rankPos = 2
	elseif rank:sub(1,10) == p.flags.deprecated then
		rankPos = 3
	else
		return
	end
	
	-- one of the rank flags was given, check if another one was given before
	if not self.flagRank then
		self.ranks = {false, false, false}  -- no other rank flag given before, so unset ranks
		self.bestRank = self.flagBest       -- unsets bestRank only if 'best' flag was not given before
		self.flagRank = true                -- mark that a rank flag was given
	end
	
	if rank:sub(-1) == "+" then
		for i = rankPos, 1, -1 do
			self.ranks[i] = true
		end
	elseif rank:sub(-1) == "-" then
		for i = rankPos, #self.ranks do
			self.ranks[i] = true
		end
	else
		self.ranks[rankPos] = true
	end
end

function Config:setPeriod(period)
	local periodPos
	
	if period == p.flags.future then
		periodPos = 1
	elseif period == p.flags.current then
		periodPos = 2
	elseif period == p.flags.former then
		periodPos = 3
	else
		return
	end
	
	-- one of the period flags was given, check if another one was given before
	if not self.flagPeriod then
		self.periods = {false, false, false}  -- no other period flag given before, so unset periods
		self.flagPeriod = true                -- mark that a period flag was given
	end
	
	self.periods[periodPos] = true
end

function Config:processFlag(flag)
	if not flag then
		return false
	else
		flag = mw.text.trim(flag)
	end
	
	if flag == p.flags.linked then
		self.curState.linked = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.raw then
		self.curState.rawValue = true
		
		if self.curState == self.states[parameters.reference] then
			-- raw reference values end with periods and require a separator (other than none)
			self.separators["sep%r"][1] = {" "}
		end
		
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.short then
		self.curState.shortName = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.multilanguage then
		self.curState.anyLanguage = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.unit then
		self.curState.unitOnly = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.mdy then
		self.mdyDate = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.single then
		self.singleClaim = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.sourced then
		self.sourcedOnly = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.edit then
		self.editable = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.editAtEnd then
		self.editable = true
		self.editAtEnd = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.best or flag:match('^'..p.flags.preferred..'[+-]?$') or flag:match('^'..p.flags.normal..'[+-]?$') or flag:match('^'..p.flags.deprecated..'[+-]?$') then
		self:setRank(flag)
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.future or flag == p.flags.current or flag == p.flags.former then
		self:setPeriod(flag)
		return true
	elseif flag == "" then
		-- ignore empty flags and carry on
		return true
	else
		return false
	end
end

function Config:processFlagOrCommand(flag)
	local param = ""
	
	if not flag then
		return false
	else
		flag = mw.text.trim(flag)
	end
	
	if flag == p.valueCommands.property or flag == p.valueCommands.properties then
		param = parameters.property
	elseif flag == p.valueCommands.qualifier or flag == p.valueCommands.qualifiers then
		self.states.qualifiersCount = self.states.qualifiersCount + 1
		param = parameters.qualifier .. self.states.qualifiersCount
		self.separators["sep"..param] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%q\\d"])}
	elseif flag == p.valueCommands.reference or flag == p.valueCommands.references then
		param = parameters.reference
	else
		return self:processFlag(flag)
	end
	
	if self.states[param] then
		return false
	end
	
	-- create a new state for each command
	self.states[param] = State.new(self)
	
	-- use "%x" as the general parameter name
	self.states[param].parsedFormat = parseFormat(parameters.general)  -- will be overwritten for param=="%p"
	
	-- set the separator
	self.states[param].separator = self.separators["sep"..param]  -- will be nil for param=="%p", which will be set separately
	
	if flag:sub(-1) ~= 's' then
		self.states[param].singleValue = true
	end
	
	self.curState = self.states[param]
	
	return true
end

function Config:qualifierMatches(claim, id, value)
	local qualifiers
	
	if claim.qualifiers then qualifiers = claim.qualifiers[id] end
	if qualifiers then
		for i, v in pairs(qualifiers) do
			if self:snakEqualsValue(v, value) then
				return true
			end
		end
	elseif value == "" then
		-- if the qualifier is not present then treat it the same as the special value 'novalue'
		return true
	end
	
	return false
end

function Config:rankMatches(rankPos)
	if self.bestRank then
		return (self.ranks[rankPos] and self.foundRank >= rankPos)
	else
		return self.ranks[rankPos]
	end
end

function Config:timeMatches(claim)
	local startTime = nil
	local startTimeY = nil
	local startTimeM = nil
	local startTimeD = nil
	local endTime = nil
	local endTimeY = nil
	local endTimeM = nil
	local endTimeD = nil
	
	if self.periods[1] and self.periods[2] and self.periods[3] then
		-- any time
		return true
	end
	
	local now = os.date('!*t')
	
	startTime = self:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, p.aliasesP.startTime)
	if startTime and startTime ~= "" and startTime ~= " " then
		startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD = parseDate(startTime)
	end
	
	endTime = self:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, p.aliasesP.endTime)
	if endTime and endTime ~= "" and endTime ~= " " then
		endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD = parseDate(endTime)
	elseif endTime == " " then
		-- end time is 'unknown', assume it is somewhere in the past;
		-- we can do this by taking the current date as a placeholder for the end time
		endTimeY = now['year']
		endTimeM = now['month']
		endTimeD = now['day']
	end
	
	if startTimeY ~= nil and endTimeY ~= nil and datePrecedesDate(endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD, startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD) then
		-- invalidate end time if it precedes start time
		endTimeY = nil
		endTimeM = nil
		endTimeD = nil
	end
	
	if self.periods[1] then
		-- future
		if startTimeY and datePrecedesDate(now['year'], now['month'], now['day'], startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD) then
			return true
		end
	end
	
	if self.periods[2] then
		-- current
		if (startTimeY == nil or not datePrecedesDate(now['year'], now['month'], now['day'], startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD)) and
		   (endTimeY == nil or datePrecedesDate(now['year'], now['month'], now['day'], endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD)) then
			return true
		end
	end
	
	if self.periods[3] then
		-- former
		if endTimeY and not datePrecedesDate(now['year'], now['month'], now['day'], endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD) then
			return true
		end
	end
	
	return false
end

-- determines if a claim has references by prefetching them from the claim using getReferences,
-- which applies some filtering that determines if a reference is actually returned,
-- and caches the references for later use
function State:isSourced(claim)
	self.conf.prefetchedRefs = self:getReferences(claim)
	return (#self.conf.prefetchedRefs > 0)
end

function State:resetCaches()
	-- any prefetched references of the previous claim must not be used
	self.conf.prefetchedRefs = nil
end

function State:claimMatches(claim)
	local matches, rankPos
	
	-- first of all, reset any cached values used for the previous claim
	self:resetCaches()
	
	-- if a property value was given, check if it matches the claim's property value
	if self.conf.propertyValue then
		matches = self.conf:snakEqualsValue(claim.mainsnak, self.conf.propertyValue)
	else
		matches = true
	end
	
	-- if any qualifier values were given, check if each matches one of the claim's qualifier values
	for i, v in pairs(self.conf.qualifierIDsAndValues) do
		matches = (matches and self.conf:qualifierMatches(claim, i, v))
	end
	
	-- check if the claim's rank and time period match
	rankPos = rankTable[claim.rank] or 4
	matches = (matches and self.conf:rankMatches(rankPos) and self.conf:timeMatches(claim))
	
	-- if only claims with references must be returned, check if this one has any
	if self.conf.sourcedOnly then
		matches = (matches and self:isSourced(claim))  -- prefetches and caches references
	end
	
	return matches, rankPos
end

function State:out()
	local result  -- collection of arrays with value objects
	local valuesArray  -- array with value objects
	local sep = nil  -- value object
	local out = {}  -- array with value objects
	
	local function walk(formatTable, result)
		local valuesArray = {}  -- array with value objects
		
		for i, v in pairs(formatTable.req) do
			if not result[i] or not result[i][1] then
				-- we've got no result for a parameter that is required on this level,
				-- so skip this level (and its children) by returning an empty result
				return {}
			end
		end
		
		for i, v in ipairs(formatTable) do
			if v.param then
				valuesArray = mergeArrays(valuesArray, result[v.str])
			elseif v.str ~= "" then
				valuesArray[#valuesArray + 1] = {v.str}
			end
			
			if v.child then
				valuesArray = mergeArrays(valuesArray, walk(v.child, result))
			end
		end
		
		return valuesArray
	end
	
	-- iterate through the results from back to front, so that we know when to add separators
	for i = #self.results, 1, -1 do
		result = self.results[i]
		
		-- if there is already some output, then add the separators
		if #out > 0 then
			sep = self.separator[1]  -- fixed separator
			result[parameters.separator] = {self.movSeparator[1]}  -- movable separator
		else
			sep = nil
			result[parameters.separator] = {self.puncMark[1]}  -- optional punctuation mark
		end
		
		valuesArray = walk(self.parsedFormat, result)
		
		if #valuesArray > 0 then
			if sep then
				valuesArray[#valuesArray + 1] = sep
			end
			
			out = mergeArrays(valuesArray, out)
		end
	end
	
	-- reset state before next iteration
	self.results = {}
	
	return out
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getProperty(claim)
	local value = {self.conf:getValue(claim.mainsnak, self.rawValue, self.linked, self.shortName, self.anyLanguage, self.unitOnly)}  -- create one value object
	
	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getQualifiers(claim, param)
	local qualifiers
	
	if claim.qualifiers then qualifiers = claim.qualifiers[self.conf.qualifierIDs[param]] end
	if qualifiers then
		-- iterate through claim's qualifier statements to collect their values;
		-- return array with multiple value objects
		return self.conf.states[param]:iterate(qualifiers, {[parameters.general] = hookNames[parameters.qualifier.."\\d"][2], count = 1})  -- pass qualifier state with level 2 hook
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array
	end
end

-- level 2 hook
function State:getQualifier(snak)
	local value = {self.conf:getValue(snak, self.rawValue, self.linked, self.shortName, self.anyLanguage, self.unitOnly)}  -- create one value object
	
	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getAllQualifiers(claim, param, result, hooks)
	local out = {}  -- array with value objects
	local sep = self.conf.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier][1]  -- value object
	
	-- iterate through the output of the separate "qualifier(s)" commands
	for i = 1, self.conf.states.qualifiersCount do
		
		-- if a hook has not been called yet, call it now
		if not result[parameters.qualifier..i] then
			self:callHook(parameters.qualifier..i, hooks, claim, result)
		end
		
		-- if there is output for this particular "qualifier(s)" command, then add it
		if result[parameters.qualifier..i] and result[parameters.qualifier..i][1] then
			
			-- if there is already some output, then add the separator
			if #out > 0 and sep then
				out[#out + 1] = sep
			end
			
			out = mergeArrays(out, result[parameters.qualifier..i])
		end
	end
	
	return out
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getReferences(claim)
	if self.conf.prefetchedRefs then
		-- return references that have been prefetched by isSourced
		return self.conf.prefetchedRefs
	end
	
	if claim.references then
		-- iterate through claim's reference statements to collect their values;
		-- return array with multiple value objects
		return self.conf.states[parameters.reference]:iterate(claim.references, {[parameters.general] = hookNames[parameters.reference][2], count = 1})  -- pass reference state with level 2 hook
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array
	end
end

-- level 2 hook
function State:getReference(statement)
	local lang, key, citeWeb, citeQ, label
	local langParams = {p.aliasesP.language, p.aliasesP.languageOfWorkOrName}
	local params = {}
	local citeParams = {['web'] = {}, ['q'] = {}}
	local citeMismatch = {}
	local useCite = nil
	local useParams = nil
	local value = ""
	local ref = {}
	
	if statement.snaks then
		-- don't include "imported from", which is added by a bot
		if statement.snaks[p.aliasesP.importedFrom] then
			statement.snaks[p.aliasesP.importedFrom] = nil
		end
		
		-- don't include languages that are equal to the local one
		for i, v in ipairs(langParams) do
			lang = self:getReferenceDetail(statement.snaks, v)
			
			if self.conf.langName == lang then
				statement.snaks[v] = nil
			end
		end
		
		-- retrieve all the parameters
		for i in pairs(statement.snaks) do
			label = ""
			
			-- multiple authors may be given
			if i == p.aliasesP.author then
				params[i] = self:getReferenceDetails(statement.snaks, i, false, self.linked, true)  -- link = true/false, anyLang = true
			else
				params[i] = {self:getReferenceDetail(statement.snaks, i, false, (self.linked or (i == p.aliasesP.statedIn)) and (statement.snaks[i][1].datatype ~= 'url'), true)}  -- link = true/false, anyLang = true
			end
			
			if #params[i] == 0 then
				params[i] = nil
			else
				if statement.snaks[i][1].datatype == 'external-id' then
					key = "external-id"
					label = self.conf:getLabel(i)
					
					if label ~= "" then
						label = label .. " "
					end
				else
					key = i
				end
				
				-- add the parameter to each matching type of citation
				for j in pairs(citeParams) do
					-- do so if there was no mismatch with a previous parameter
					if not citeMismatch[j] then
						-- check if this parameter is not mismatching itself
						if i18n['cite'][j][key] then
							-- continue if an option is available in the corresponding cite template
							if i18n['cite'][j][key] ~= "" then
								citeParams[j][i18n['cite'][j][key]] = label .. params[i][1]
								
								-- if there are multiple parameter values (authors), add those too
								for k=2, #params[i] do
									citeParams[j][i18n['cite'][j][key]..k] = label .. params[i][k]
								end
							end
						else
							citeMismatch[j] = true
						end
					end
				end
			end
		end
		
		-- get title of general template for citing web references
		citeWeb = split(mw.wikibase.sitelink(aliasesQ.citeWeb) or "", ":")[2]  -- split off namespace from front
		
		-- get title of template that expands stated-in references into citations
		citeQ = split(mw.wikibase.sitelink(aliasesQ.citeQ) or "", ":")[2]  -- split off namespace from front
		
		-- (1) use the general template for citing web references if there is a match and if at least both "reference URL" and "title" are present
		if citeWeb and not citeMismatch['web'] and citeParams['web'][i18n['cite']['web'][p.aliasesP.referenceURL]] and citeParams['web'][i18n['cite']['web'][p.aliasesP.title]] then
			useCite = citeWeb
			useParams = citeParams['web']
			
		-- (2) use the template that expands stated-in references into citations if there is a match and if at least "stated in" is present
		elseif citeQ and not citeMismatch['q'] and citeParams['q'][i18n['cite']['q'][p.aliasesP.statedIn]] then
			-- we need the raw "stated in" Q-identifier for the this template
			citeParams['q'][i18n['cite']['q'][p.aliasesP.statedIn]] = self:getReferenceDetail(statement.snaks, p.aliasesP.statedIn, true)  -- raw = true
			
			useCite = citeQ
			useParams = citeParams['q']
		end
		
		if useCite and useParams then
			-- if this module is being substituted then build a regular template call, otherwise expand the template
			if mw.isSubsting() then
				for i, v in pairs(useParams) do
					value = value .. "|" .. i .. "=" .. v
				end
				
				value = "{{" .. useCite .. value .. "}}"
			else
				value = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title=useCite, args=useParams}
			end
			
		-- (3) else, do some default rendering of name-value pairs, but only if at least "stated in", "reference URL" or "title" is present
		elseif params[p.aliasesP.statedIn] or params[p.aliasesP.referenceURL] or params[p.aliasesP.title] then
			citeParams['default'] = {}
			
			-- start by adding authors up front
			if params[p.aliasesP.author] and #params[p.aliasesP.author] > 0 then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = table.concat(params[p.aliasesP.author], " & ")
			end
			
			-- combine "reference URL" and "title" into one link if both are present
			if params[p.aliasesP.referenceURL] and params[p.aliasesP.title] then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = '[' .. params[p.aliasesP.referenceURL][1] .. ' "' .. params[p.aliasesP.title][1] .. '"]'
			elseif params[p.aliasesP.referenceURL] then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = params[p.aliasesP.referenceURL][1]
			elseif params[p.aliasesP.title] then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = '"' .. params[p.aliasesP.title][1] .. '"'
			end
			
			-- then add "stated in"
			if params[p.aliasesP.statedIn] then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = "''" .. params[p.aliasesP.statedIn][1] .. "''"
			end
			
			-- remove previously added parameters so that they won't be added a second time
			params[p.aliasesP.author] = nil
			params[p.aliasesP.referenceURL] = nil
			params[p.aliasesP.title] = nil
			params[p.aliasesP.statedIn] = nil
			
			-- add the rest of the parameters
			for i, v in pairs(params) do
				i = self.conf:getLabel(i)
				
				if i ~= "" then
					citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = i .. ": " .. v[1]
				end
			end
			
			value = table.concat(citeParams['default'], "; ")
			
			if value ~= "" then
				value = value .. "."
			end
		end
		
		if value ~= "" then
			value = {value}  -- create one value object
			
			if not self.rawValue then
				-- this should become a <ref> tag, so safe the reference's hash for later
				value.refHash = statement.hash
			end
			
			ref = {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array
		end
	end
	
	return ref
end

-- gets a detail of one particular type for a reference
function State:getReferenceDetail(snaks, dType, raw, link, anyLang)
	local switchLang = anyLang
	local value = nil
	
	if not snaks[dType] then
		return nil
	end
	
	-- if anyLang, first try the local language and otherwise any language
	repeat
		for i, v in ipairs(snaks[dType]) do
			value = self.conf:getValue(v, raw, link, false, anyLang and not switchLang, false, true)  -- noSpecial = true
			
			if value then
				break
			end
		end
		
		if value or not anyLang then
			break
		end
		
		switchLang = not switchLang
	until anyLang and switchLang
	
	return value
end

-- gets the details of one particular type for a reference
function State:getReferenceDetails(snaks, dType, raw, link, anyLang)
	local values = {}
	
	if not snaks[dType] then
		return {}
	end
	
	for i, v in ipairs(snaks[dType]) do
		-- if nil is returned then it will not be added to the table
		values[#values + 1] = self.conf:getValue(v, raw, link, false, anyLang, false, true)  -- noSpecial = true
	end
	
	return values
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getAlias(object)
	local value = object.value
	local title = nil
	
	if value and self.linked then
		if self.conf.entityID:sub(1,1) == "Q" then
			title = mw.wikibase.sitelink(self.conf.entityID)
		elseif self.conf.entityID:sub(1,1) == "P" then
			title = "d:Property:" .. self.conf.entityID
		end
		
		if title then
			value = buildWikilink(title, value)
		end
	end
	
	value = {value}  -- create one value object
	
	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

function State:callHook(param, hooks, statement, result)
	local valuesArray, refHash
	
	-- call a parameter's hook if it has been defined and if it has not been called before
	if not result[param] and hooks[param] then
		valuesArray = self[hooks[param]](self, statement, param, result, hooks)  -- array with value objects
		
		-- add to the result
		if #valuesArray > 0 then
			result[param] = valuesArray
			result.count = result.count + 1
		else
			result[param] = {}  -- an empty array to indicate that we've tried this hook already
			return true  -- miss == true
		end
	end
	
	return false
end

-- iterate through claims, claim's qualifiers or claim's references to collect values
function State:iterate(statements, hooks, matchHook)
	matchHook = matchHook or alwaysTrue
	
	local matches = false
	local rankPos = nil
	local result, gotRequired
	
	for i, v in ipairs(statements) do
		-- rankPos will be nil for non-claim statements (e.g. qualifiers, references, etc.)
		matches, rankPos = matchHook(self, v)
		
		if matches then
			result = {count = 0}  -- collection of arrays with value objects
			
			local function walk(formatTable)
				local miss
				
				for i2, v2 in pairs(formatTable.req) do
					-- call a hook, adding its return value to the result
					miss = self:callHook(i2, hooks, v, result)
					
					if miss then
						-- we miss a required value for this level, so return false
						return false
					end
					
					if result.count == hooks.count then
						-- we're done if all hooks have been called;
						-- returning at this point breaks the loop
						return true
					end
				end
				
				for i2, v2 in ipairs(formatTable) do
					if result.count == hooks.count then
						-- we're done if all hooks have been called;
						-- returning at this point prevents further childs from being processed
						return true
					end
					
					if v2.child then
						walk(v2.child)
					end
				end
				
				return true
			end
			gotRequired = walk(self.parsedFormat)
			
			-- only append the result if we got values for all required parameters on the root level
			if gotRequired then
				-- if we have a rankPos (only with matchHook() for complete claims), then update the foundRank
				if rankPos and self.conf.foundRank > rankPos then
					self.conf.foundRank = rankPos
				end
				
				-- append the result
				self.results[#self.results + 1] = result
				
				-- break if we only need a single value
				if self.singleValue then
					break
				end
			end
		end
	end
	
	return self:out()
end

function extractEntityFromInput(id, allowUnknown)
	if id:sub(1,1):upper() == "Q" then
		return id:upper()
	elseif id:sub(1,9):lower() == "property:" then
		return replaceAlias(mw.text.trim(id:sub(10))):upper()  -- entity ID of a property was given
	elseif allowUnknown and id ~= "" then 
		return replaceAlias(id):upper()
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function extractEntityFromArgs(args, nextIndex, handleUnknownPos)
	local id, eidArg
	
	if args[nextIndex] then
		args[nextIndex] = mw.text.trim(args[nextIndex])
	else
		args[nextIndex] = ""
	end
	
	id = extractEntityFromInput(args[nextIndex], handleUnknownPos)
	eidArg = args[p.args.eid]
	
	if id then 
		return id, nextIndex + 1
	elseif not eidArg then
		return mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage(), nextIndex  -- by default, use item-entity connected to current page
	else
		return extractEntityFromInput(eidArg, true), nextIndex
	end
end

function valueCommand(args, funcName)
	local _ = Config.new()
	_:processFlagOrCommand(funcName)  -- process first command (== function name)
	
	local parsedFormat, formatParams, claims, sep, value
	local hooks = {count = 0}
	
	local nextIndex = 1
	
	-- process flags and commands
	while _:processFlagOrCommand(args[nextIndex]) do
		nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
	end
	
	_.entityID, nextIndex = extractEntityFromArgs(args, nextIndex, false)
	
	-- if eid was expliclty set to empty, then this returns an empty string
	if _.entityID == nil then
		return ""
	end
	
	_.entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(_.entityID)
	_.propertyID = replaceAlias(args[nextIndex]):upper()
	nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
	
	if _.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then
		-- do further processing if "qualifier(s)" command was given
		
		if #args - nextIndex + 1 > _.states.qualifiersCount then
			-- claim ID or literal value has been given
			
			_.propertyValue = mw.text.trim(args[nextIndex])
			nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
		end
		
		for i = 1, _.states.qualifiersCount do
			-- check if given qualifier ID is an alias and add it
			_.qualifierIDs[parameters.qualifier..i] = replaceAlias(mw.text.trim(args[nextIndex] or "")):upper()
			nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
		end
	elseif _.states[parameters.reference] then
		-- do further processing if "reference(s)" command was given
		
		if args[nextIndex] then
			_.propertyValue = mw.text.trim(args[nextIndex])
		end
		-- not incrementing nextIndex because it is never used after this
	end
	
	-- check for special property value 'somevalue' or 'novalue'
	if _.propertyValue then
		_.propertyValue = replaceSpecialChars(_.propertyValue)
		
		if _.propertyValue ~= "" and mw.text.trim(_.propertyValue) == "" then
			_.propertyValue = " "  -- single space represents 'somevalue', whereas empty string represents 'novalue'
		else
			_.propertyValue = mw.text.trim(_.propertyValue)
		end
	end
	
	-- parse the desired format, or choose an appropriate format
	if args["format"] then
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(args["format"])
	elseif _.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then  -- "qualifier(s)" command given
		if _.states[parameters.property] then  -- "propert(y|ies)" command given
			parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.propertyWithQualifier)
		else
			parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.qualifier)
		end
	elseif _.states[parameters.property] then  -- "propert(y|ies)" command given
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.property)
	else  -- "reference(s)" command given
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.reference)
	end
	
	-- if a "qualifier(s)" command and no "propert(y|ies)" command has been given, make the movable separator a semicolon
	if _.states.qualifiersCount > 0 and not _.states[parameters.property] then
		_.separators["sep"..parameters.separator][1] = {";"}
	end
	
	-- if only "reference(s)" has been given, set the default separator to none (except when raw)
	if _.states[parameters.reference] and not _.states[parameters.property] and _.states.qualifiersCount == 0
	   and not _.states[parameters.reference].rawValue then
		_.separators["sep"][1] = nil
	end
	
	-- if exactly one "qualifier(s)" command has been given, make "sep%q" point to "sep%q1" to make them equivalent;
	-- must come BEFORE overriding the separator values
	if _.states.qualifiersCount == 1 then
		_.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier] = _.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier.."1"]
	end
	
	-- process overridden separator values;
	-- must come AFTER parsing the format
	for i, v in pairs(_.separators) do
		if args[i] then
			sep = replaceSpecialChars(args[i])
			
			if sep ~= "" then
				_.separators[i][1] = {sep}
			else
				_.separators[i][1] = nil
			end
		end
	end
	
	-- define the hooks that should be called (getProperty, getQualifiers, getReferences);
	-- only define a hook if both its command ("propert(y|ies)", "reference(s)", "qualifier(s)") and its parameter ("%p", "%r", "%q1", "%q2", "%q3") have been given
	for i, v in pairs(_.states) do
		-- e.g. 'formatParams["%q1"] or formatParams["%q"]' to define hook even if "%q1" was not defined to be able to build a complete value for "%q"
		if formatParams[i] or formatParams[i:sub(1, 2)] then
			hooks[i] = getHookName(i, 1)
			hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
		end
	end
	
	-- the "%q" parameter is not attached to a state, but is a collection of the results of multiple states (attached to "%q1", "%q2", "%q3", ...);
	-- so if this parameter is given then this hook must be defined separately, but only if at least one "qualifier(s)" command has been given
	if formatParams[parameters.qualifier] and _.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then
		hooks[parameters.qualifier] = getHookName(parameters.qualifier, 1)
		hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
	end
	
	-- create a state for "properties" if it doesn't exist yet, which will be used as a base configuration for each claim iteration;
	-- must come AFTER defining the hooks
	if not _.states[parameters.property] then
		_.states[parameters.property] = State.new(_)
		
		-- if the "single" flag has been given then this state should be equivalent to "property" (singular)
		if _.singleClaim then
			_.states[parameters.property].singleValue = true
		end
	end
	
	-- if the "sourced" flag has been given then create a state for "reference" if it doesn't exist yet, using default values,
	-- which must exist in order to be able to determine if a claim has any references;
	-- must come AFTER defining the hooks
	if _.sourcedOnly and not _.states[parameters.reference] then
		_:processFlagOrCommand(p.valueCommands.reference)  -- use singular "reference" to minimize overhead
	end
	
	-- set the parsed format and the separators (and optional punctuation mark)
	_.states[parameters.property].parsedFormat = parsedFormat
	_.states[parameters.property].separator = _.separators["sep"]
	_.states[parameters.property].movSeparator = _.separators["sep"..parameters.separator]
	_.states[parameters.property].puncMark = _.separators["punc"]
	
	-- process qualifier matching values, analogous to _.propertyValue
	for i, v in pairs(args) do
		i = tostring(i)
		
		if i:match('^[Pp]%d+$') or p.aliasesP[i] then
			v = replaceSpecialChars(v)
			
			-- check for special qualifier value 'somevalue'
			if v ~= "" and mw.text.trim(v) == "" then
				v = " "  -- single space represents 'somevalue'
			end
			
			_.qualifierIDsAndValues[replaceAlias(i):upper()] = v
		end
	end
	
	if _.entity and _.entity.claims then claims = _.entity.claims[_.propertyID] end
	if claims then
		-- first sort the claims on rank to pre-define the order of output (preferred first, then normal, then deprecated)
		claims = sortOnRank(claims)
		
		-- then iterate through the claims to collect values
		value = _:concatValues(_.states[parameters.property]:iterate(claims, hooks, State.claimMatches))  -- pass property state with level 1 hooks and matchHook
		
		-- if desired, add a clickable icon that may be used to edit the returned values on Wikidata
		if _.editable and value ~= "" then
			value = value .. _:getEditIcon()
		end
		
		return value
	else
		return ""
	end
end

function nameCommand(args, funcName)
	local _ = Config.new()
	_.curState = State.new(_)
	
	local value = nil
	local nextIndex = 1
	
	while _:processFlag(args[nextIndex]) do
		nextIndex = nextIndex + 1
	end
	
	_.entityID, nextIndex = extractEntityFromArgs(args, nextIndex, true)
	
	-- if eid was expliclty set to empty, then this returns an empty string
	if _.entityID == nil then
		return ""
	end
	
	-- serve according to the given command
	if funcName == p.nameCommands.label then
		value = _:getLabel(_.entityID, _.curState.rawValue, _.curState.linked, _.curState.shortName)
	elseif funcName == p.nameCommands.title then
		_.pageTitle = true
		
		if _.entityID:sub(1,1) == "Q" then
			value = mw.wikibase.sitelink(_.entityID)
		end
		
		if _.curState.linked and value then
			value = buildWikilink(value)
		end
	elseif funcName == p.nameCommands.alias or funcName == p.nameCommands.aliases then
		local aliases, parsedFormat, formatParams, sep
		local hooks = {count = 0}
		
		if funcName == p.nameCommands.alias then
			_.curState.singleValue = true
		end
		
		-- parse the desired format, or parse the default aliases format
		if args["format"] then
			parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(args["format"])
		else
			parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.alias)
		end
		
		-- process overridden separator values;
		-- must come AFTER parsing the format
		for i, v in pairs(_.separators) do
			if args[i] then
				sep = replaceSpecialChars(args[i])
				
				if sep ~= "" then
					_.separators[i][1] = {sep}
				else
					_.separators[i][1] = nil
				end
			end
		end
		
		-- define the hook that should be called (getAlias);
		-- only define the hook if the parameter ("%a") has been given
		if formatParams[parameters.alias] then
			hooks[parameters.alias] = getHookName(parameters.alias, 1)
			hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
		end
		
		-- set the parsed format and the separators (and optional punctuation mark)
		_.curState.parsedFormat = parsedFormat
		_.curState.separator = _.separators["sep"]
		_.curState.movSeparator = _.separators["sep"..parameters.separator]
		_.curState.puncMark = _.separators["punc"]
		
		_.entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(_.entityID)
		
		if _.entity and _.entity.aliases then aliases = _.entity.aliases[_.langCode] end
		if aliases then
			value = _:concatValues(_.curState:iterate(aliases, hooks))
		end
	end
	
	value = value or ""
	
	if _.editable and value ~= "" then
		-- if desired, add a clickable icon that may be used to edit the returned value on Wikidata
		value = value .. _:getEditIcon()
	end
	
	return value
end

-- modules that include this module should call the functions with an underscore prepended, e.g.: p._property(args)
function establishCommands(commandList, commandFunc)
	for commandIndex, commandName in pairs(commandList) do
		local function wikitextWrapper(frame) 
			loadSubmodules(frame)
			return commandFunc(copyTable(frame.args), commandName)
		end
		p[commandName] = wikitextWrapper
		
		local function luaWrapper(args)
			loadSubmodules()
			return commandFunc(args, commandName)
		end
		p["_" .. commandName] = luaWrapper	
	end
end

establishCommands(p.valueCommands, valueCommand)
establishCommands(p.nameCommands, nameCommand)

-- main function that is supposed to be used by wrapper templates
function p.main(frame)
	local f, args, i, v
	
	loadSubmodules(frame)
	
	-- get the parent frame to take the arguments that were passed to the wrapper template
	frame = frame:getParent() or frame
	
	if not frame.args[1] then
		throwError("no-function-specified")
	end
	
	f = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1])
	
	if f == "main" then
		throwError("main-called-twice")
	end
	
	assert(p["_"..f], errorText('no-such-function', f))
	
	-- copy arguments from immutable to mutable table
	args = copyTable(frame.args)
	
	-- remove the function name from the list
	table.remove(args, 1)
	
	return p["_"..f](args)
end

return p